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THE 

I 

i. POLYPHONIC PERIOD OF MUSIC 



PART I 



HENRY PROWDEi M.A. 

PUBU8HXR TO THK UNIVSIIBXTT OF OXFORD 

LONDON, EDINBURGH 

NEW YORK 



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THE OXFORD 
HISTORY OF MUSIC 



VOL. I 



» 



THE POLYPHONIC PERIOD. Part I 

METHOD OF MUSICAL ART, 330-1330 



BY 



H. E. WOOLDRIDGE, M.A. 

SLADE PROFESSOR OF FINS ART IN THE UNIVERSITy OF OXFORD 



OXFORD 
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

1901 



ML 
l(,o 

.09 

V.I 



OXFORD 

PUKTID AT THE CLA&KNDON PRESS 

BY HOBACS BABT, MJL 
PKIMTBS TO raS UMIVBHRT 






Is 






Tldti^. To miMs^ -^ 



EDITOK'S PKEFACE 



The histories of music in current use have for the most 
part adopted a method which is frankly and ostensibly 
biographical Their spirit has been largely that of the 
( Saga or the Epic, rousing our admiration for the achieve- 
L ments of princes and heroes, but leaving u» uninformed, 
and indeed unconcerned, as to the general government of 
the kingdom or the general fortunes of the host Such 
a method has no doubt obvious advantage& It is human, 
^ it is interesting, it readily compels our attention, it wins 
>7v from us a ftdl acknowledgement of the debt that we owe 
to the great masters. But at the same time it is liable 
to two attendant dangers : first, that of ignoring the work 
done by lesser men ; second, that of placing genius itself 
in a false perspectiva The history of an art, like the 
history of a nation, is something more than a record of 
personal prowess and renown. Tendencies arise from small 
beginnings; they gather strength imperceptibly as they 
proceed; they develop, almost by natural growth, to im- 
portant issues : and the great artist has commonly inherited 
a wealth of past tradition and effort which it is at once 
his glory and his privilege to administer. 

More especially is this true of music, which among all 
the arts has exhibited the most continuous evolution. Over 



\?)\ 3) ^0^ 



vi METHOD OF MUSICAL ABT 

six centuries of work went to provide Palestrina with his 
medium; Purcell succeeded in the fullness of time to a 
long line of English ancestry ; Bach, though he owed much 
to Pachelbel and Buxtehude, much to Vivaldi and Couperin, 
was under still greater obligation to that steady growth 
ayd progress which the spirit of German church music had 
maintained since the days of Luther. Even those changes 
which appear the most violent in character — ^the Florentine 
Revolution, the rise of the Viennese School, the new paths 
of the Romantic movement — ^may all be rightly considered 
as parts of one comprehensive scheme: sometimes re- 
acyusting a balance that had fisLllen askew, sometimes recalling 
a form of expression that had been temporarily forgotten 
or n^lected, never wh<dly breaking the design or striving 
at the impossible task of pure innovation. 

To trace the outlines oS. this scheme is the main object 
of the present work. The biographical method, admirable 
in its way and within its limits, has been sufficiently followed 
elsewhere :— in histories, in monographs, m dictionaries and 
encyclopaedias' of musia But these still leave room for a 
complementary treatise which shall deal with the art rather 
than the artist, which shall follow its progress through the 
interchanges of success and &ilure, of aspiration and attain- 
ment, which shall endeavour to illustrate from its peculiar 
conditions the truth of Emerson's profound saying that ' the 
greatest genius is the most indebted man.' In some cases 
the labour has proved difficult and obscure, partly from 
imperfection of the record, partly from extreme complexity 
of causal relations; at any rate the whole ground hsfi 
been surveyed afresh, and the iacts interpreted with as 
little as may be of prejudice or prepossession. 

The work heua been planned in six volumes. The first 
two, by Professor H. E. Wooldridge, deal with the music 



EDITOR'S PREFACE vii 

of the Mediaeval Church, one closmg with the period of 
Dificanty the other tracing the course of Modal Counter- 
point up to the work of Palestrina and his successors : the 
third, by Sir C. H. H. Parry, follows the line of the early 
Monodic movement from its origin in Joaquin and Arcadelt 
to its culmination in Purcell : the fourth, by Mr. J. A. Fuller 
Maitland, deals especially with the music of Bach and 
Handel, and with the harmonic counterpoint which is 
peculiarly characteristic of their time: the fifths by the 
Editor, narrates the rise and progress of the Viennese 
School, and carries from Haydn to Schubert the develop- 
ment of the great instrumental forms : the sixth, by Mr. K 
Dannreuther, describes that phase of the art which is dis- 
tinctively known as Romantic, and discusses the formative 
conditions which inspired Weber in the theatre, Schumann 
and Chopin in the concert-room. With the Romantic 
period it has been thought advisable to stop. The 
more recent aspects of musical art, though at least as well 
worth investigation as those of any preceding age, are 
yet too near us for complete and dispassionate judgement 
With Brahms and Wagner, with Tchaikovsky and Dvoirdk 
and Richard Strauss, we are still liable to the fiEtults of a 
hasty or ill-eonsidered criticism, and must leave to a future 
generation the task of assigning them their place and 
exjdaining the tendencies through which alooe they can be 
interpreted. 

It is impossible in so brief an outline even to indicate 
aU the topics of which we propose to treat Questions of 
ethnology, questions of aesthetic, questions even of social 
convention and popular taste, meet the musical historian 
at every turn, and demand at any rate acknowledgement, 
and where possible an attempt at solution. Our object 
has been to account, so &r as we are able, for the sue- 



viu METHOD OF MUSICAL ABT 

cesdye stages through which European music has passed 
since it became, to use an obvious analogy, a living language. 
The distribution of the work among different hands has 
been part of a settled policy, designed to secure for each 
period a treatment which shall be not only fuU but in a 
special degree sympathetia There are but few men 
who have sufficient breadth of view to deal equally with 
every type and phase of artistic utterance ; of these few 
there are still fewer whose lives would suffice for the 
requisite investigation and research. Some of the facts 
have demanded journeys to remote parts of Europe, others 
have needed peculiar kinds of knowledge or experience, 
and though we may gladly admit that England contains 
writers who alone could have accomplished the whole, it 
hafi seemed advisable to aim at such efficiency as may be 
secured by a combination of labour. 

There remain a few words to say on the particular scope 
and purport of the present voluma Starting from the 
recorded system of the Greek modes it finds the first 
germ of polyphony in the magadising practice described by 
Aristotle and Athenaeus, and traces the apparent modifica- 
tions of the system to its adoption in the Latin Church. 
It thence proceeds to estimate the position and work of 
St Ambrose, to compare the basis of the earliest Christian 
hymns and antiphons with that of their Greek originals, 
and to point out the inveterate error which still speaks of 
the Ecclesiastical modes as Gregorian. By this route it 
reaches its first resting-point in the distinction of authentic 
and plagal, and in the treatises, scientific rather than 
artistic, of Aurelian and of John Scotus Erigena. A new 
departure is taken with the introduction of Organum or 
Diaphony, first in the strict form of the Mtidca EnchiriadiSy 
then ^Ith the greater freedom of Guido's Micrologtis, and 



EDITOR'S PREFACE ix 

so through the alternations of theory and practice from the 
Winchester Troper to Cotto and Guy of Chalis. Next 
comes the introduction of measured music, and the establish- 
ment of a fixed and intelligible rhythm : tentatively in the 
Discantus Positio Vulgaris^ more firmly in Franco of Cologne, 
reaching a temporary climax with Walter Odington. From 
this the practice of Discant takes its origin, the early 
notation develops into a metrical scheme, and the art of 
music passes into a phase more consonant with modem 
principles and modem theories. A special part of the 
volume is devoted to rhythmic conventions, and particularly 
to the infiuence of rests or pauses in determining metrical 
rules, all of which bear an important part in rendering the 
material of music more flexible and more amenable to 
artistic treatment The devices are still archaic and remote, 
the methods rudimentary, the results occasionally harsh and 
unfamiliar ; but the germ of our metrical system is there, 
and needs but time and experience for its fiill develop- 
ment The work of Jean de Garlande is rich in examples, 
and is supported by an anonymous treatise of the late 
thirteenth century, now in the British Museum. 

With the period of Discant this volume comes to its 
close. Its later chapters are occupied with a description 
of the various types of composition current at the time : — 
the Cantilena and Rondel; the Motett; the Hoquet; the 
Conductus, and the Organum purum. Of these forms some 
have been known by illustration, some by little more than 
the name alone, and it is a piece of conspicuous good 
fortune which has placed at Professor Wooldridge's disposal 
the MS. of a Notre Dame choir book, recently discovered 
in the Laurentian Library, which contains specimens of the 
church music in actual use at this period 

It is probably to the imperfection of the record that we 



X METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

^may attribute the curious break which separates the method 
of Discant from that of Counterpoint properly so called 
At any rate with the consummation of the former there 
appears a natural interval which, in the course of the 
present work, is taken to separate the first volume from 
the second In the former we are dealing with conditions 
so primitive as almost to justify the Semious paradox that 
the true ancient history is mediaeval In the latter we 
shall find artistic work which can still give the purest and 
noblest pleasure, and can win our admiration for consum- 
mate skill and complete achievement Yet the age of 
Counterpoint would have been impossible without the age 
of Discant; and the tentative and uncertain steps, often 
misled, often baffled, were destined at last to find a way 
through which men should venture to the exploration and 
conquest of unknown regiona In the cause of art no true 
effort is wasted, and the greatest leader is not always he 
who enters the promised land 

W. a HADOW. 



AUTHOR'S PREFATORY NOTE 



Since the Editor in his Pre&ce has referred to my use 

of a MS., marked Plutarch 29. 1, in the Laurentian Library 

> at Florence, a few words, explaining the exact nature and 

extent of the authority of this MS. so feur as we understand 

it at present, may not be out of place hera 

The MS., hitherto generally known as An^phonarium 
Mediceuniy consists of a large collection of vocal music, in 
two, three, and four parts, in a handwriting which throughout 
aj^ars to be of the thirteenth oentury. It is of great 
importance, not only frc»n the yaried and representatiye 
character of its contents, which may be said to constitute 
it the most instructive and valuable record of its kind as 
yet discovered, but also from the fact, to which the Editor 
has referred, that the collection which it contains may be 
identified with a series, or part of a series, of six volumes, 
known to have formed a part of the musical library of Notre 
Dame of Paris in the middle of the thirteenth century ; it 
displays, therefore, work performed in the very centre of 
the musical activity of the time during its most brilliant 
period. The identification has been effected by means of 
a comparison of the MS. with an account of the Notre Dame 
series given by the anonymous author of a treatise De 
Mensunis et Diseantu^ now in the British Museum (Royal 
MSS. 12. c. 6), who had apparently seen the six volumes in 
the cathedral library at FaiiB. The idea of this comparison 



xu 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



first occurred to Dr. Wilhelm Meyer (of Speyer), Professor 
in Gottingeii, who, in the course of an investigation of l^e 
Florence MS., connected chiefly with its poetical contents, 
was struck by the correspondence of the titles of certam 
pieces to thoee mentioned in the anonymons author's account 
of the Parisian collection. Professor Meyer published the 
results of his investigation in 1898, in a pamphlet entitled 
Der Urspnmg des Motett'Sy and it is to a copy of this work, 
which he himself kindly sent me, that I am indebted for my 
first knowledge of the facts. 

The description of the Notre Dame collection, given by the 
anonymous author of the British Museum treatise, may 
here be quoted, together with so much of Professor Meyer's 
analysis of the Florence MS. as corresponds to it, in parallel 
form: — 



Est quoddam volumen con- 
tinens quadrupla, ut Viderunt 
et Sederunt, que composuit 
Perotinus magnus^ in quibus 
continentur colores et pidchri- 
tudines. Pro maiori parte totius 
artis huius habeatis ipsa in usu 
cum quibusdam similibus^ &c« 

Est et aliud volumen de tri- 
plicibus maioribus magnis, ut 
AUeluiaDies sanctificatus, &c. ; 
in quo continentur colores et 
pulchritudines cum abundan- 
tia^ &c. 

Tertium volumen est de 
conductis triplicibus, caudas 
habentibus, sicut Salvatoris 
hodicy et Relegentur ab area, 
et simiiia, in quibus continen- 
tur pimcta finalia organi in 



The first fascicle of the MS. 
Plutarch 29. i, (fol. 1-13) con- 
tains a collection of four-voiced 
compositions^ beginning with 
Viderunt and Sederunt. 



The second fascicle (fol. 14 
and onwards to fol. 65) con- 
tains three-voiced composi- 
tions^ beginning with Descendit 
de celiSf Tanguam sponstis, 
Gloriaj Alleluia Dies sanctifi- 
catusy &c. 

At folio 201 begins a col- 
lection of three-voiced com- 
positions^ extending through 
about 106 pages, and beginning 
with Salvatoris hodie and 
Relegentur ab area* 



AUTHOR'S PREFATORY NOTE 



xui 



fine versuum^ et in quibusdam 
non^ quo8 bonus organiata 
perfecte scire tenetnr. 

Est et aliud volumen de du- 
plidbus conductis habentibus 
caudas^ ut Ave Maria antu 
quum, in duplo^ et Pater noster 
eommiserans, vel Hac in die 
rege natOj in quo continentur 
nomina plurium conductorum^ 
et similia. 



At folio 263^ and continuing 
through about 918 pages^ is a 
collection of two-voiced com- 
positions^ in which Ave Maria 
antiquum is found at fol. 984^ 
Pater noster commiserans at 
foL 278^ and Hac in die rege 
nato at fol. 339. The text of 
this last composition is made 
up of the initial phrases of the 
conducts occurring between 
folios 263 and 313. 



Est et quintum volumen de 
quadruplicibus et triplicibus 
et duplicibus sine cauda, quod 
soleb&t esse multum in usu 
inter minores cantores^ et 
similia. 

Est et sextum volumen de 
organo in duplo^ ut ludea et 
leruialem, et Constanies, &c. 

Et pluria alia volumina re« 
periimtur, sed in diversitatibus 
ordinationum cantus et melo- 
die^ sicut simplices conducti 
laid ; et sunt millia alia plura 
de quibus omnibus in suis 
libris vel voluminibus plenius 
patet. 



Elsewhere in his treatise the author of the British Museum 
MS. informs us that the first and second volumes of the 
collection described by him display the same form of com- 
position as the sixth, that is to say the form known as 
Organum purum, while the third and fourth are said, in 



Bq^nning with the sixth 
fasdcle of the MS.^ at folio 65^ 
and continuing through about 
238 pages, is a collection of 
two-voiced compositions, of 
which the first two are ludea 
et lerusalem and Constantes 
estate. 



xiv METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

the accoant itself just given, to contain the examples of 
a form known as Canductus. Although these two forms are 
often referred to by the theorists of the thirteenth century, 
only a very few specim^is of Orga/mum pwmum^ and none 
at all of Candtictus have been hitherto known to exist ; now, 
however, we see that in the Florence MS. we possess a great 
number of works in both forms, for two, three, and four 
voices. Whether the Florence MS. contains the whole, 
or only a part, of the collection described in the British 
Museum MS., we cannot at present certainly say ; Prctfessor 
Meyer is of opinion that much more still remains to be 
discovered, and that especially in a MS. in the library of 
Wolfenbiittel (marked Helmstedt, 628) important portions 
of it are to be found. Also it is still doubtful whether 
the fescicles of which the Florence MS. is composed are 
actually portions of the Notre Dame choir books, or whether 
they are only contemporary copies of the originals ; though, 
since the beauty of the MS. would seem to exclude the 
idea of a copy, we may perhaps furly suppose that the 
Laurentian Library possesses the actual scores which were 
used by the Parisian singers. 

The Florence MS. also contains much interesting music 
not described, — though perhaps included in his 'millia 
alia' — ^by the author of the Britidi Museum MS. Among 
these may be mentioned a collection of Motetts, remarkable 
for their early method of notation and for the strictness 
of their form, extracts from which will be found in their 
proper place in the present voluma For the identification 
of their tenors — ^as well as of others formerly printed by 
M. de Coussemaker — ^with passages of Plainsong, I am 
indebted to the learning and kindness of the Rev. W. 
H. Frere. 

H. R WOOLDRIDGR 



CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION 
Thb Nature of Polyphony . 



CHAPTER I 
Thb Origin of Polyphony 






PAGE 



CHAPTER II 

The Materials of Polyphony 
Greek Music . /> -. 8 



CHAPTER III 

The Materials of PoLYPHomr (continued) 

Greek Music in the Latin Church ... 24 



CHAPTER IV 
Oroanum or Diaphont 45 



xvi CONTENTS 

PAOK 

CHAPTER V 

Thb New Obganum and the Transition to 

Measured Music 74 

CHAPTER VI 

DiscANT OR Measured Music 

I. The Measured Notation and its Relation to 

Fixed Rhythms 102 

n. The Mutual Relations op the Individual 

Voices 155 

III. Forms of Composition 175 



THE POLYI^HONIC PERIOD 

OF MUSIC 



INTRODUCTION 



THE NATURE OF POLYPHONY 



In consideriiig the development of the resources of pure 
sounds regarded as a material for artistic treatment, the 
phenomena may be seen as arranging themselves in three 
main divisions or periods^ each representing a totally distinct 
phase of artistic activity in relation to the material and a 
different view of ^its^capabilities. 

The first period represents that phase in which the beauty 
to be obtained from the material is perceived only as consisting 
in certain arrangements of consecutive simple sounds; the 
aim of the artist is single^ and its outcome is the coherent 
individual utterance^ or Melody. This was the music of the 
old Greeks and is still the music of all eastern people. ^ 

The second period is that in which the mind awakes to 
the possibility of a new beauty to be obtained by com- 
bining different individual utterances simultaneously; and in 
this phase the aim of the artist is twofold, for he seeks to 
adjust the mutual relations of the separate tnelodies in such 
a manner as not only to elicit the full effect of their combina- 
tion but to preserve at the same time a relative independence 

WOOLDSIDOB B 



2 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

for each ; the outcome is a complete miion^ maintained upon 
the principle of an absolute equality^ between the individual 
and the collective elements of the composition^ and this is 
Polyphony. 

The thirds or strictly Harmonic period, the period in which 
we now are, represents the phase in which the principle of 
equality between the individual and the collective elements 
has been abandoned, and melody, even when apparently most 
free and self-developed, is entirely controlled by harmonic 
considerations. 

Of these three periods that with which we are chiefly con- 
cerned is the second, the period of Polyphony. The gradual 
development of the separate melodies and of the rules which 
govern their simultaneous employment, the growth of the 
artist's perception of the capabilities of his new material of 
combined sounds, of the special beauty which belongs to its 
nature, and of the degree in which scientific treatment may 
be effectively applied in it, the progress, in short, of contra- 
puntal Music from its rise onward to its first perfection and 
complete constitution as a Fine Art, is the subject indicated 
in our title. 

In the beginning of our work a close connexion will be 
seen as existing between the Polyphonic and Melodic periods, 
since it was from the older system that Polyphony received 
the whole of its original technical means, a rational scale and 
a theory of the consonance and dissonance of its various 
intervals respectively; towards the dose, on the other hand, 
the imminence of the Harmonic period will be perceived, and 
it will be necessary to point out that many of the later 
phenomena of Polyphony which appear as inconsistent and 
insubordinate are signs of its approach. 



CHAPTEE I 

THE OBiaiN OF POLYPHONY 

Thb origin of Polyphony lies no doubt in the reduplication 
of the individual utterance or melody by mixed voices in the 
choral song. The efiFect of this reduplication would naturally 
be perceived as more agreeable than that of the singing of 
equal voices^ and recognition of the double sound as the 
source of pleasure, demonstration of the real character of the 
interval, and conscious use of it as a form of art, inight well 
be the^ first steps in the process of evolution. 

The first sign of a direct advance towards Polyphony is 
to be found among the Greeks. They had taken note of the 
particular efiFect created by the simultaneous employment of 
the voices of men and children or. of certain voices and instru- 
ments in the same melody, and already in Aristotle's time 
had given it the name of Antiphany, contrasting it with the 
less pleasing efiFect of e^ual voices or instruments of like 
pitch which they called Hamophony; and they were moreover 
perfectly aware of its real nature as consisting in the con- 
sonance of the octave^. Furthermore, there seems to be 
evidence of some sort of conception of its use as an artistic 
form, for while the efiFect itself was defined as antiphany the 

* 'Why if tjmphanaoM nngiiig (antiplumy) moro agreeable than Homoplioiiy ? 
la H not becaiiae antiphony is the comionance of the octaTe P For antlphoiny ii 
bom of the yoioea of young boys and men whose tonea are distant from each 
other as neiB tnm hupate' (the highest and lowest notes of the ootave scale). 
JH9M»Uan PnUnu, ziz. 39. 

B 2 



4 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

practice of it received a special name and was called maga- 
dizing'^. This name seems to imply something more than 
a fortuitous mixture of the voices of men and children, 
resulting in the consonance of the octave, and suggests a 
conscious process with an aesthetic purpose; the magadis 
was a harp-like instrument of many strings which would 
admit of the reduplication of a melody^^ and we may perhaps 
suppose that the effect of the natural unconscious mingling 
of voices in chorus being often imitated upon the magadis 
by the deliberate artifice of striking each note of the melody 
in octaves ', vocal antiphony became at length in turn a con- 
scious process taking its name from the instrumental imitation. 
Be this, however, as it may, the essential fact of the employ- 
ment by the Greeks of the octave progression under the name 
of magadizing is certain^ and that it was consciously employed 
as a distinct means of aesthetic pleasure is probable. 

Homophony, the consonance of the unison, could hardly 
have been supposed to offer the material for a separate form^ 
since in unison the voices are indistinguishable^ Yet the 
Greeks evidently conceived of consonance, suitable for simid- 
taneous singing, as something so smooth as to render the 
distinction between the voices only very slightly perceptible, 
and it is no doubt for this reason that in Aristotle's time, as 
we learn from the Problems^ the consonances of the fourth 
and fifth, in which the distinction is very obvious, were not 
sung simultaneously. Antiphony^ in which the fact of 
difference is perceptible while the consonance is as smooth 

' ' The ooDBonance of the octave u often magadized.* AriBt. Proh, xiz. 39. 

' Mr. Ellis (Helmholtz, SenaaUcna qf Tone, ed. 1895, p. 237) sajs that the 
itringB of this instrament were diYided by a bridge at one-third of their length. 
And in the later theoriBtfi the little bridges which were nsed for the division 
of the monochord were often called magadsa, 

' 'Pindar, in his scolion to Hiero, describes the sound of the magadis as 
responsive, because it gives a concord, at the octave, of two kinds of t<»e, 
namely those of men and boys.* — AtKmaeuSf xiv. 36. From this passage we also 
gather that the recognition of the concord of the octave was as old as Pindar, i.e. 
circ. 522 B.C. 



THE ORIGIN OF POLYPHONY 5 

as unison, alone provided a suitable medium for the maga- 
dizing process^. 

Thus it will be seen that the Greek practice with respect 
to the employment of mixed voices which is here described, 
though important from our present point of view, does not 
really depart from the essentially melodic principles of the 
period to which it belongs; for it is clear that the especial 
suitability of the octave progression for its purpose consisted 
in the fact that in it the obviously different voices were in 
effect singing the same note, and it is evident also that the 
idea that voices could be peniiitted to sing obviously different 
notes simidtaneouidy, even' though those notes might be 
technically consonant, was not entertained. The Greeks, 
therefore, who employed &nd defined an tiphgn y had not formed 
even the slightest conception of polyphonic music in its true 
sense; yet inasmuch as the essential principle of that music, 
the equal union of the individual and collective elements, is 
actually present in antiphony, we may say that the rudimen- 
tary form of art -which as we have seen was known as 
magadizing was in fact the first parent of Polyphony. 

The conclusions at which we have just arrived are founded 
almost entirely upon the evidence of the Aristotelian Pro- 
blems, and represent chiefly, therefore, the Greek practice as 
it existed in the fourth century B.C.; but it has sometimes 
been supposed that the actual development of the principle 
of Polyphony, though not to be traced in Greek music of 
the great period, might well have been b^un in that of later 



' * Why is the oomonanoe of the octeve the <ml j one which is Bung ? for in 
fact this conwonance is magadized, hat not the others. Is it not hecanse this 
oooaonanee alone is antiphonoos ? For in the antiphones, when one of the two 
notes is snng the same effect is prodnoed as in the case of the other, so that 
a single sound of this consonance heing sung the entire consonance is sung; and 
when the two sounds are snng, or if one is taken hj the voice and the other by 
the flute, the same effect is produced as if one were given alone. This is why this 
ooQsooance is the only one which is sung, because the antiphones have the sound 
of a single note.* AriaL Brob, xiz. i8. 



\ 



6 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

times^ and perhaps through the experimental use of the con- 
sonances of the fourth and fifth. 

It will be evident from what has been said that no further 
progress in the direction of Polyphony could be made until 
the intervals of the fourth and fifth had been recognized as 
possible media for the magadizing process ; this would 
obviously be the next logical step towards the new form of 
art, and^ by accustoming the ear to the difference between the 
voices in intervals which were technically consonant, would 
prepare it to endure other sounds, necessarily arising from 
the independent movement of polyphonic melodies^ which 
were demonstrable in theory as dissonant. 

Historians therefore have looked eagerly into the works 
of the later Greek theorists and the later literature generally, 
in the hope of finding some reference to the practice of 
magadizing fourths and fifths ; recently however this hope 
has been abandoned^ and it is now acknowledged that there 
is no reason to suppose that the Greeks ever proceeded in 
the practice of magadizing beyond the consonance of the 
octave. 

And indeed this result of the inquiry might have been 
expected. The governing principles of Greek art were so 
deeply established^ and the details of its practice were so 
closely connected with those principles, that there was no room 
for the development of new essential forms within it; even 
when exhausted the system maintained its authority, and only 
upon its absolute decay and dissolution did such forms arise. 
Greek music^ therefore, whose task was the evolution of 
a rational scale and of the melodies to which its various forms 
might give birth^ must naturally, even in its decline^ have 
n^lected the development of a principle so foreign to its 
vital purpose as that which we now see to be actually con- 
tained in the magadizing process. To us this process appears 
as the beginning of all the riches that we possess ; in the 
older world it could lead to nothing, and though it might be 



V 

ft 



THE ORIGIN OF POLYPHONY 7 

reasoned about, and used with pleasure as a kind of art form, 
it could not be more at last than it was at first — the exact 
reduplication of a melody at the distance of an octave. 

In the decay and dissolution, therefore, of Greek music we 
must look for the development of the new principle. Nor 
must we look for it among the Greeks themselves ; the ebbing 
life of the old system was to be received and appropriated by 
new races, Italians and northern people, and the development 
and constitution of Polyphony, under which form Music was 
next to flourish,'was to be the work of a new era. 



CHAPTEB n 

THE MATEBIALS OF POLYPHONY 
GREEK MUSIC 

Before passing on to consider the work of the new era in 
its most important aspect — ^that namely in which it is seen as 
discovering and developing the new principle of Polyphony — 
we must pause for a moment to consider the actual technical 
resources of Music at the time of its adoption by the Italians ; 
and we must inquire not only what those resources were, 
but also what were their relative degreeB of vitality at that 
moment. The Italians, as we shall see, did not adopt those 
resources in their entirety, and our inquiry may suggest a 
reason for this fact. 

The basis of Music is of course the Scale, which selects 
from all possible sounds those which are most suitable to the 
purposes of melody, and arranges them in a rational order of 
progression. It will not be necessary for our- present purpose 
to trace the growth of the scale from the original tetrachord, 
which at first appeared as the natural limit of possible melody, 
to the full double-octave system, including all the sounds 
within the natural compass of human voices, which was for 
the Greeks its final and standard form ; we may at once 
proceed to consider it in its complete shape, which is here 
shown upon the opposite page, with the old name of each 
note and its modem equivalent. 



THE MATERIAUS OF POLYPHONY 



THB DOUBLE-OCTAV£ SGALE^ OR PERFECT IMMUTABLE 

SYSTEM OF THE GREEKS 



/ 



/ Nete Hyperbdlaidii 



S 

I 

I 



a 

Tone 



", 



Puanete Hyperbolaidn g: 



Trite HyperboluAn 



^ / 






< 



i 



Tone 

f 

PWWiwWIft 

Nete IMefeugmendn e 

TooeADioHittu 
Puanete IXexengmendn d' ^i Nete Synemmendn 

Tone Tone 
Trite IXeieiigineiidii C C Paranete Synemmendn 

Semitone Tone 

b b|^ Trite Synemmendn 
JKoentxtt y Semitone 

aMeM 

Tone 

O Lichanoe Mei6n 
Tone 

F Parhypate Mei6ii 
Semitone 

k E Hypate Meedn 
Tone 

D Lichanoe Hypatdn 

Tetmchordon Hypatdn ^ ^«*« 

C Ferhypate HypatAn 




Tetfachordoa MeaAn 



\ 



^ B Hypate fiypatdn 
A Ptoslambaaoaienoe 



f 



I 



/ 



lo METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 

The original octave scale of the Greeks was composed of the 
two disjunct tetrachords Mesdn and Diezeugmendn^ and in- 
cluded the notes between £ and e ; and these notes were first 
named simply^ Hjrpate, Parhypate^ Lichanos^ Mese, in the 
lower tetrachord, and Paramese, Trite, Paranete, Nete, in the 
upper one K Upon the extension of the system by the addition 
of a tetrachord at each end of the scale the names given to the 
notes in the original tetrachords were again adopted in those 
which had been conjoined with them, but the distinctive name 
of each tetrachord of the full system was now added as a kind 
of surname to all the notes within that portion of the scale, 
as the table shows. 

This was the Greater Perfect S]rstem of the Grreeks; the 
Lesser Perfect System was based upon the ancient seven- 
stringed scale consisting of the two conjunct tetrachords 
Mesdn and Synemmendn, the tetrachord Hypatdn being after- 
wards added as in the Greater System; and the union of 
these two systems, with the addition of the note Proslam- 
banomenos, the low A, to complete the double octave, 
constituted the Perfect Immutable System shown in our 
illustration. 

In this union of systems it will be seen that both modulation 
and exact transposition to the fourth above or fifth below are 
rendered possible ; for it is evident that if any series of eight 
notes proceeding by way of the tetrachord Diezeugmendn be 
repeated in the fourth above or fifth bdow proceeding by 
way of the tetrachord S}rnemmendn, the intervals in both cases 
will occur in the same order. 

Of the various intervals contained in this scale some 
appear to have been from the earliest times perceived as con- 
sonant and some as dissonant, the ear being the judge ; but 
in the sixth century b.c. Pythagoras discovered, or as some 

^ The Greek nunee of notes were the names of the strings of the lyie, end axe 
deseriptiTe not of their pitch bat of their relatiye poaitian in the instroment; the 
lowest string of the Ijre theref ote sounded the highest note of the scale. 



THE MATERIALS OF POLYPHONY ii 

think learned from the Egyptian priests^ the law which 
govema them and brings them within the compass of theo- 
retical knowledge. He proclaimed the remarkable fact, of 
which the proof existed in his famous experiments with 
stretched strings of different lengths, that the ratios of the. 
internals perceived as consonant could all be expressed by the 
numbers, i, 2, 3, 4. His method of demonstration was after- 
wards improved and rendered more exact by the invention 
of the monochord, and his law may now be stated as follows. 

If a string be divided into two parts by a bridge, in such 
a manner as to give two consonant sounds when struck, the 
length of those parts will be in the ratio of two of the four 
smallest whole numbers. If the bridge be so placed that 
two-thirds of the string lie to the right and one-third to the 
left, so that the two lengths are in the ratio 2 : i, they 
produce the interval of the octave, the greater length giving 
the deeper note. If the bridge be so placed that three-fifths 
of the string lie to the right and two-fifths to the left the 
ratio of the two lengths is 3:2, and the interval produced 
is the Ji/ih, If the bridge be again shifted to a position 
which gives four-sevenths on the right and three-sevenths on 
the left the ratio is 4 : 3, and the interval is the fourth ; thus — 



DiapMon (8w). 



1 
t 

Bridge. 



Diapente (5U1). 

1 1 1 u . 

r» + » ^ 

" BHdgi. 

I I L 



" Brttgi. 

The remainiiig intervals contained in the Octave, which 
were perceived aa di—onant, require higher numbers to express 



12 METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 

their ratios. Those intervak therefore whose ratios are the 
most simple were also for the Greeks the most consonant. 

The division of the scale into tones and semitones shown 
in our full-page illustration is proper to the diatonic genus, 
the oldest kind of music, for in this genus the tetrachord — 
the interval of the perfect fourth — was composed of a semi- 
tone and two tones, the semitone being always in the lowest 
place. And here it may be explained in passing that in 
all the genera the number, order and names, both of the 
tetrachords and of the notes contained in them, was the same, 
and that the distinction between one genus and another con- 
sisted entirely in the manner in which the tetrachord was 
divided; while Hypate Hypatdn therefore, Hypate Mesdn, 
Mese, &c., the limiting notes. of the various tetrachords, 
were fixed, the remaining notes, Parhypate and Ldchanos in 
the lower tetrachords and Trite and Paranete in the upper 
ones, were movable, that is to say their intervals were 
different according to the genus employed, and upon this 
difference depended the peculiar emotional quality or ethos 
of each genus. 

With the detailed characteristics of the chromatic and 
enharmonic genera this work has of course nothing to do; 
it will be sufficient to point out that although for the older 
Greeks they formed one of the most important of technical 
resources they played probably no part, or at all events no 
appreciable part, in music at the time of its inheritance by 
the Italians. Even diuing the period of their development 
and perfection as means of musical expression — a period which 
appears to have been identical with the great or classical 
period of Greek art of other kinds — they must have been 
found, considered as practical methods, exceedingly complex 
and difficult in performance, and their gradual disuse may 
have been in great part due to this cause; but whether this 
be so, or whether it be that the particular kind of expression 
obtained by the constant juxtaposition of minute and excessive 



THE MATERIAUS OP POLYPHONY 13 

inteiralfl^ which is characteristic of the scales of these genera^ 
failed by dq^rees to please^ it appears to be the fact that 
already in Ptolemjr's time (tHe second century a,d.) they 
had fallen to a great extent out of emplojrment^ and from 
the brief and perfunctory manner in which they are treated 
of by the latest classical writers on Music, Martianus Capella 
(fifth century a. d.) and Boetius (sixth century a. d.), we may 
even perhaps conclude that this decline in favour had in their 
time reached the point of general neglect. 

Another technical resource possessed by the Greeks which 
like the chromatic and enharmonic genera was passing at 
this time out of use, or was at all events no longer used 
to the full extent of its capacity, is to be found in the keys 
or schemes of transposition. These keys afforded a method, 
closely analogous to our own, by means of which all scales 
might be raised or lowered to any pitch at pleasure ; the scale 
of £ for example might be taken on F, F(^ G, &c., or on D(, 
D, C4, &c., the system proceeding upwards or downwards 
by semitones. This change was not effected empirically, 
but by means of a definite supposed transposition of the 
whole of the Greater Perfect System to the pitch required, 
to any semitone, that is to say, contained in the compass of 
the octave scale ; since therefore the octave divided into semi- 
tones contained thirteen ppssible notes it consisted also of 
thirteen keys or recognized modes of transposition. The keys 
were formerly only seven, but the system was completed by 
Aristoxenus during the classical period ; later two others were 
added at the upper end of the system, but these, though they 
may have been found of use practically, possessed no theoretic 
value, being only repetitions of two already existing. 

This system of keys, like the chromatic and enharmonic 
genera, had been regarded in the classical period as an 
important means of expression, for there can be little doubt 
that the older Greeks attached a special ethical value to the 
particular pitch at which a melody was sung, a value which 



14 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



TABLE OF THB ORBBK KBY8 



KoTB nr OxBKK Soalb. 


Gbiik Kit. 


MoDnur 

SktuiyixiHT 

vox Obbik Kxt. 


MeM 


A 


Hypeipluygiin (« H^^oderian) 


A minor 


Smittofw 




Hyperionian 


Of minor 


Lichanos meadn 


G 


^Mixolydian 


O minor 


SemUons 


• 


^Lydian 


Fft minor 


Fwhypato met6n 


F 


Aeolian 


Fminor 


Hypatomesdn 


E 


^Fhiygian 


£minor 


Semiiom 




Ionian 


Dft minor 
(S- Bb minor) 


LiofaADOs Hypftt^n 


D 


*Dorian 


Dminor 


Semitone 




*Hypolydian 


CI minor 


Ftehypate H jpatdn 


C 


Hypoaeolian 


C minor 


Hypftte Hypftt6n 


B 


*Hypoplirygian 


B minor 


Semitone 




Hypoionian 


Aft minor 
(or Bb minor) 


Proslambuiomenof 


A 


*Hypodorian 


A minor 



* The aeven cidest keifs. 



^ The modem equivalents are here shown, for the sake of oonrenienoe, in the 
notation of our chromatic scale A-a; it most, however, he ohaerved that in 
the Qieek notation the system is in the Hypolydian key, which gives F minor 
for the Hypodorian scale, and so upwards hy semitones. 



THE MATERIALS OF POLYPHONY 15 

we are now not very well able to appreciate^ but which 
apparently was by them clearly perceived and generally 
recognized; it is evident^ however, from Ptolemjr's treatment 
of the subject that in his time, about a. d. 100, the particular 
key in which a melody should be sung was no longer regarded 
as a matter of special solicitude, and that it was left to be 
decided entirely by the taste or convenience of the performer. 

The chief proof of the failure of the Aristoxenean system 
of keys to maintain its authority is perhaps to be found 
in the fact that Ptolemy, after criticizing it, proposes as 
a substitute the well-known system of Modes or Species of 
the diatonic scale. This system may be regarded in two 
points of view; either, that is to say, as affording an im- 
proved method of transposition — and this it would appear 
was the aspect chiefly insisted upon by Ptolemy — or, on the 
other hand, as the source of distinct rules of melody. The 
diatonic double-octave scale is of course susceptible of seven 
different octachordal sections," each of which will display 
the two semitonic intervals in a new position and will therefore, 
if the first note of each section be taken as its final or keynote, 
create a new and special scale and a special character of 
melody in each scale; thus each section of the double^ctave 
system becomes in itself a n^e of melody founded upon the 
particular order of its intervals in relation to the final note, 
and this was undoubtedly the aspect in which the system of 
Modes or Species of the octave presented itself to the com- 
posers of the Oraeco-Roman period. Whether it was at this 
time in any sense a new aspect it is difficult to say. Certainly 
the conception of the octave as consisting of seven species 
did not originate even with Ptolemy; it had existed long 
before his time, and had been applied not only to the diatonic 
but also to the enharmonic scale by older writers, in whose 
works moreover the names adopted by Ptolemy for the seven 
spedes, which were those of the seven oldest keys, are also 
to be found. But the history of this conception, and the 



i6 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



THB 8BVEN MODES OR 8PEGIB8 SHOWN AS SECTIONS OF THE 
SEVEN OLDEST KEYS, FROM WHICH THEY ABE NAMED 



MizoLTDiAir Kbt. 

Spedefl. 




±t 



IQ 



' ' ^^ rj ^ 



Ta=^ 



.o. 



i 



:□: 



32: 



■^ 



Ltdiait Kit. 




Specie 



>-- rj o <^ 



ri g» 



i 



■^ 



3=1=^ 



is: 



-«- 



la: 



se: 



PHBTaiAV KkT. 

» — 




Specict. 



-o 



^j o Q 



rgr 



i 



■^ 



-rx-^ 



-©- 



22: 



Z2: 



DoBiAV Kkt. 




Spedes. 



^ 



^^ gj 



S=EZ 



XL 



^^^ 



22=®: 



3Z 



CP ® 



Htpoltdiak Kst. 




Spedi 



la. 



is: 



.^■fa g> *^ 



^ " ^M l 



-cr-^ 



zz 



HYPOPHBTaiAN Kkt. 




SpedflB. 



-0-«- 



rj <=» 



ZE 



-6^ 



22 



" -ra ffi < g ^ 



i 



■^- 



Htpodobiav Kit. 




Species. 



^ J t *ng Q 



i 



« <g 



za: 



"O — <^ 



zz 



THE MATERIALS OF POLYPHONY 



17 



THE BEYBN MODES OB SPECIES REDUCED TO THE FUNDA- 
MENTAL SCALE OF A AND SHOWN AS SECTIONS OF 
THAT SCALE 




MiXOLTDIAK 



■&■ 



q' fa 



3a=s 




Ltdiak 



c; < g 



*Va €9 - 



rj ^ 



zz: 



^ 




^P^ 



PHX70IAir 



T?-~^ 



^^fJ <g 



2C 




DOBUV 



' ^Vj ^^ 



zz 



^ ^ n fi/-ri :g 



zz 



I 



Htpoltdiait 




iTL iJT 


HTPOPHBTOIAir ^ 

1 „,/^ r/'^ "1 


^ 


##==^===J 


i g " "^ 1 






Htpoj>obiav 



-&- 



rx. 



T3L 



*» — Q- 



22: 



WOOLDRIDOB 



1 8 METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 

nature of the connexion which seems to have existed 
between the species and the keys in older times^ is still 
involved in some obscurity, and the question whether the 
doctrine of the species was at first much more than a 
theoretical proposition, whether more than one species was 
actually in use, and if so how many were employed, is 
still the subject of discussion among writers upon Greek 
music — a discussion which, failing the discovery of many 
more specimens of that music than we at present possess, 
will hardly be satisfactorily concluded. If, however, those are 
right who maintain that in the earlier proposition of seven 
species the theoretical character predominates, the novel 
element in Ptolemjr's treatment of this conception would 
consist in his demonstration of its practical value; and his 
recognition of the Modes as a technical means superior to 
the keys, and his adoption of the names of the notes of the 
original complete scale for the notation of each special scale, 
should then be rq^arded as events of the highest importance 
in the history of music. 

The question, which naturally arises, whether all the Modes 
were of equal practical value for the later composers as rules 
of melody, may be partly answered by a reference to the 
scales generally recognized as proper to the Cithara, since 
this instrument supplied both the accompaniment to the 
narrative and Ijrric songs and the instrumental solo, which 
were at this time the prevailing musical forms. The citharodic 
Modes are generally said to be five — the Dorian, the H}rpo- 
phrygian or lastian, the Hypodorian or Aeolian, the Phrygian, 
and the Lydian; the Modes omitted are the Hypolydian, in 
which the fourth is a tritone, and the Mixolydian, in which 
the fifth is imperfect ; the Hypolydian^ however, seems to have 
been allowed in practice. 

The melodies written in these scales ranged between the 
final and its octave (with liberty to take the note next below the 
final), and ended upon the final ; but two varieties were recog- 



THE MATERIALS OP POLYPHONY 19 

nized; the intense lastian^ in which the melody ended upon 
the third of the scale^ and the relaxed lastian^ in which the 
range was extended to the fourth below the final; and it 
would appear that these two varieties were also recognized 
for the Hypolydian scale. A hybrid scale^ combining the 
lastiail and the Aeolian^ and called lastaeolian^ was also 
in use. 

Of the seven existing specimens of Greek music which are 
of sufficient length to give a clear indication of their scales, 
two are written in the Aeolian, one in the lastian, one in the 
relaxed lastian, and three in the Dorian. All, with one 
exception, belong to the Oraeco-Roman period. 

The foUowing table shows the Citharodic Modes with their 
practical variations in relation to the existing compositions : — 

MizoLTPLUr No example.' 

Ltdlut No ezBinple. 

Phbtoiah No example. 

DOBlAir «... Three examples ; the Hyo^ to Apollo aa^ to 

the Mv«e, and (P) the Hymn to Apollo fonntl 
at Delphi. 

Htpoltdiak NoexampleA 

IiTTKirsB HTFOLTDLiir . . One of the little iuftnimental pieces given by 

Bellerman's jlnonymua woald teem to be in 
this scale. 

RsLAXSD Htpoltpiak . No example. 

Htpophbtgiah OB lABTZAir . One example; the little inscription discovered 

by Mr. Ramsay, beginning 'Otf or (gf ^vw, 

InrnrsB Iastlut .... No example. 

Rblaxbd Iabtiak . . . One example ; the Hymn to Nemesis. 

I^TABOUAir .... No example. 

Htfodobiav OB Abouak . . Two examples; the instromental pieces g^ven 

by the AwmfpmtM (three) ; and the music to 
the first Pythio of Pindar. 

C 2 



20 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



As it will be necessary for the purpose of comparison 
to refer to some of the details of Oraeco-Roman practice, one 
of the Hymns is here given in modem notation. 



HTMN TO THB MUSB. 



^ 



DOBIAV. 



3 



a 



s 



-^ 



^ 



TJ- 



TT 



e^ ' rj 



'A - fi - 8i /lov ' cii /cot ^ - Aiy, /loX - vQf 8* I - 




3 



3 



ZZ 



^ 



/i^r cor • 4$^ 



XW 



f^r r I 



o& ' fiti 8i 



tf»y dv* 




£=3a: 



3 



^-^ ^ J r^"^ 



dA - flr4 - ttir 



I - /ids ^pi - yas io ' vti - - - tw. 




^ 



5 



* 



ZOl 



-6^ 



KoX -A«-d - mi -a co - ^^ 



/iotr 



-0 — eg Q 



- aw wpO'ita0' 




i 



^ 



«j> — c 



^ y 



.^^ Gf- 



^ 



■CT 



3a: 



a - 7^ - ri Tfp • vrwri ccU ao -^ /iv - oro - 8^ - ra, 




^ 



2a: 



i 



i 



zz 



-& 



22: 



■«► 



Aa 



rovf y6 ' rt, A^ - Ai - c, 



not - - dv. 




3 



s 



3 



-fi>r 



■^ 






XT- 



tO ' /tt - KcTr «d^ - c - <rr^ 



It will be observed that, together with the change of rhythm, 
at the words Kakki6v€ia a-o<l>a a change takes place in the 
melody also, which now extends its range to the fourth below 
the final. This seems to point to the fact that relaxed scales 
not officiaUy recognized were sometimes employed. 



THE MATERIAUS OP POLYPHONY ai 

It will be evident from this brief survey of the technical 
means of Ghreek music that already in the second century a.d. 
a great change had taken place in the practical methods of 
dealing with the materials of the art, and that two important 
resources, upon which the ethos of music was held in the 
classical period largely to depend, were passing out of use, 
while their place was partly occupied by another of totally 
different scope and value. This view of the situation is borne 
out by a recent writer of authority. ^The main object of 
Ptolemy's reform of the scales,' says Mr. Monro^ ^was to 
provide a new set of scales, each characterized by a particular 
succession of intervals, while the pitch was left to take care 
of itself. And it is clear, especially from the specimens which 
Ptolemy gives of the scales in use at his time, that he was 
only endeavouring . to systematize what already e3dsted, and 
bring theory into harmony with the developments of practice. 
We must suppose, therefore, that the musical feeling which 
sought variety in differences of key came to have less influence 
on the practical art, and that musicians began to discover, 
or to appreciate more than they had done, the use of different 
*^ modes '' or forms of the octave scale. 

^ Along with tiiis change we have to note the comparative 
disuse of the Enharmonic and Chromatic divisions of the tetra- 
chord. The Enharmonic, according to Ptolemy, had ceased to 
be employed. Of the three varieties of Chromatic given by 
Aristoxenus only one remains on Ptolemy's list, and that the 
one which in the scheme of Aristoxenus involved no interval 
less than a semitone. And although Ptolemy disting^hed 
at least three varieties of Diatonic, it is worth notice that only 
one of these was admitted in the tuning of the Ijrre — the 
others being confined to the more elaborate cithara. In 
Ptolemy's time, therefore, music was rapidly approaching the 
stage in which all its forms are based upon a single scale — 

* The Modes of Ancient OrtekMutk. Oiford, 1894. 



22 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

the natural diatonic scale of modern Europe/ We can hardly 
be wrong in supposing that the tendency here described 
continued in increasing proportion. 

Finally, we may devote a moment's consideration to the 
probable condition of music, regarded from the point of view 
of its aesthetic value, at the time of its adoption by the Italians. 
The materials for a judgement are extremely scanty, and if 
we have to deplore the absence of examples in our attempts 
to make clear to ourselves points of technique still somewhat 
obscure, even more miist we do so in endeavouring to realize 
the gradual changes which undoubtedly took place in melody 
as a consequence of the natural progress of the art ; for while 
in considering the growth of technique we are assisted by 
a number of theoretical treatises of different dates which leave 
comparatively few points unexplained, in attempting to form 
an estimate of the aesthetic condition of the art at any par- 
ticular time we derive far less help from these sources. Even 
from these, however, considered as guides to the contemporary 
practice, we may gather something to the purpose if we bear 
in mind the artistic principle that the aesthetic quality of 
production in any phase of art is always highest in that period 
in which the technical means proper to the phase are most 
developed. Since, therefore, the treatise of Aristoxenus, the 
contemporary and pupil of Aristotie, most clearly reveals to us 
the existence of this period, we may conclude that in or about 
his time Greek music, having reached the highest point of 
technical development suitable to its nature, had also attained 
the summit of aesthetic significance; and upon the same 
principle we should conclude that later treatises, such as that 
of Ptolemy, in which the means in use are seen as restricted 
in number and scope, and the latest of all, such as that of 
Boetius, which are obviously merely scholastic compilations 
and are scarcdy Buggesti^e of any contemporary practice what- 
ever, indicate the periods of decline and decay. 

But a stronger conviction of the decadent character of music 



THE MATERIALS OP POLYPHONY 2$ 

at the time of its adoption by the Italians may be gained from 
a consideration of the influence which chiefly operates in the 
rise and progress of a great creative epoch — the general 
aesthetic impulse^ arising out of a new view of the capabilities 
of all artistic materials^ which inspires the special structures 
of the various forms with life and supplies the force which is 
required for their development. In this aspect all the arts 
are seen as advancing together^ and as nearly abreast as the 
special conditions of each structure ^nll allow. Together they 
rise to a relative perfection^ which is for each the complete 
utilization of the powers of its special material as perceived 
in the particular epochs and together^ when their work is 
accomplished^ they rapidly decline. 

This phenomenon was witnessed in the great creative period 
of European art; in the interval between the years 1500 and 
1600 each of its various forms had reached its culminating 
pointy and during the fifty years which followed all failed 
through the exhaiistion of the impulse which had raised them. 
In all that we know of Greek art the operation of the same 
law is to be observed^ and there is no reason to suppose that 
in that part of it which we do not know the law was broken, 
or that the history of Greek music, if we could complete it, 
would afford the solitary exception. Indeed it is as certain 
as anything can be of which we have not absolute proof, that 
if a sufficient historical series of examples could be discovered, 
the later specimens would be found to exhibit the same degra- 
dation, in sentiment, energy, and beauty, which is evident in 
the contemporary work in other fields which has come down 
to u& 



CHAPTER m 

THE MATERIALS OF POLTPHONT 

(continued) 

GREEK MUSIC IN THE LATIN CHURCH 

The beginning of the new era may be said to be marked^ 
in our present point of view^ by the public recognition and 
triumph of Christianity and its ritual worship^ which thence- 
forward might develop in security. 

At this moment aU the conditions with respect to music 
in Italy would appear to have been exactly those which are 
most favourable to the rise of a new phase of artistic activity. 
Not only was a new field of labour prepared in the ritual of 
the Churchy and a fresh impulse supplied by the new religion, 
but it must also be remembered that the Italians had as yet 
expressed nothing of their own in music, which for them had 
always been an exotic art professed and performed by Greeks, 
or if they themselves had attempted an]rthing the attempt had 
been a mere imitation of the Greeks; considered, th^efore, 
in relation to the expressive part of music they were a new 
race, though perfectly familiar with the great prevailing theory 
of composition. Thus on the one hand we see the occasion 
or impulse acting upon the imtried race, and on the other, 
ready for adoption, technical resources still excellent and a 
method still soimd which their actual possessors could no longer 
develop, contenting themselves with the employment of old 
forms to no new!|iarpose and with decreasing energy. We 
should expec^^Cherefore to find that the natural effect of the 



THE MATERIALS OF POLYPHONY 25 

conjunction of these two conditions was at once evident in 
the music of the public worship^ and that this was soon 
enriched with native compositions animated by a new and 
energetic spirit; for although it is clear that the chants and 
fragments of melody which had been used by the Church in 
its depressed condition were reverently preserved^ it is difficult 
to suppose that liberty and honour could fail to produce great 
expansion and much incKnation towards original work. 

We should not, however^ expect to find that any great 
change was on this account at once apparent in the art of 
music; on the contrary^ the early Church must have been 
at first entirely dependent upon the examples afforded by 
existing forms in its attempts towards individual expression. 
We may admit of course that its view of these may have 
been governed by a distinct principle of selection ; the secular 
and degraded ceremonial forms would naturally have been 
rejected as unworthy of imitation^ and models would be looked 
for in the graver kinds of music, in the hymns to the gods 
and the long narrative cantatas of the Graeco-Roman citharodi^ 
but it will still remain none the less evident that the music 
of the Christian ritual, from the nature of the conditions under 
which it came into beings must for a long time have strongly 
resembled in its general outlines the music which was going 
on around it; we should expect therefore to find deeply-marked 
traces, at least, of the Oraeco-Roman practice in the first 
efforts of the Church. 

And turning to the oldest Christian compositions, the Hjrmns 
and Antiphons of the Office, of which the earliest examples 
date from the end of the fourth century, we*find these ex- 
pectations fully justified^ not only as regards the number of 
melodies, which is very considerable, but also as regards their 
technique^ which differs in no important respect from that of 
the current pagan lyric song. In both the same scales are 
employed, and (if we may judge from the small number of 
Oreek examples) the same scales were neglected; in both the 



26 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

melodic range, the poinU of repose in the scale, and often 
the actual formulae, are identical ; in short we find in Christian 
music the old music continued, with just that degree of differ- 
ence which might be expected in the work of a new race 
which has something new to express. 

This view of the early Christian music, in which it presents 
to us so forcible an illustration of the law of complete con- 
tipuity in artistic effort, has hitherto been obscured by the 
ecclesiastical tradition of a rule of four Greek Modes — Phrygian, 
Dorian, Hypolydian, and Hypophrygian — imposed upon the 
Church by St. Ambrose, and of a great revision and intro- 
duction of four new Modes by St. Gregory. But this tradition 
can no longer be maintained. That the hymns composed by 
St. Ambrose are the earliest specimens of Christian composition 
known to exist is undoubted, but that they can have constituted 
an imposed rule, or any part of such a rule, is most improbable, 
for it is clear that the scales employed in these compositions 
are nothing more than the scales of the Graeco-Roman citha- 
rodi, and that the Hymns conform in all respects to the current 
classical practice ; moreover, the story of the Grregorian revision, 
and adoption of the plagal forms of the supposed original four 
modes, is now contradicted by the recently discovered fact 
that the Christian music as exhibited in the Antiphonary 
continued upon the old classical basis, without any change 
of importance, certainly until the end of the seventh century, 
or nearly a himdred years after the time of St. Gregory, and 
possibly until about the year 9CX)^. 

Examples of all the scales to be found in the earliest hymns 
are here given (from Gevaert) in modem notation. They are 
the Dorian or E species of the octave ; the lastian or G species, 
the relaxed lastian descending a fourth below the final; the 
intense lastian ending upon the third of the scale ; the Aeolian 

' We owe the demonstration of these important facts to M. F. A. Gevaert^ in 
whose M&cp^ AnH^tue dans le chani de VigUse LoUine (1895) the whole snbject is 
for the first time pnt in a proper Ught and exhaustively treated. 



THE MATERIALS OF POLYPHONY 



27 



or A species; and the lastaeolian, or combined lastian and 
Aeolian, in both of its forms. It will be observed (compare the 
list given above of the scales of the existing Greek composi- 
tions) that of the Mixolydian or B species, the Lydian or 
C species, the Phrygian or D species, and the Hypolydian 
or F species, the hymns contain no examples. 



DOBIAV. 




Z 



i 



y^ f^ Q = f^ Q ^ 



3St 



d ^ c) 



-^ 



rJ a 



-&- 



-&■ 



AB-ter- na Clirifl-ti nra - ne-m £t mar-ty-mm vie - to * ri • as 




^=i^=g^ 



^ 



d^J^ri t=f 



zz 



lOu 



^ 



Laa-des fe-ren-tea de • U-taa Lae-tia ca-na-miiB men - ti - Imi. 



Iabtiav, rvteMcL 




^jij^r}4r\ 



^^^^s 



€S f o 



-& 



O Inz be-a-ta Trin-i-taa Et prin - d-pa-lia U - ni-taa 




^^^^^^S 



^s 



^ 



lua Md le-oe-dit ig-ne - iu In-fon-de a-mo-iem oar - di - bw. 



IiBTiAir, marmaL 




I'f} fi> 'irjj^ 



V r^ rJ " 



-S^ 



-» 



Ae-ter-nerex al-tas-n-me Be-demp-tor et fl- de - U - mn 




P=i^T'« rJrJJj o LJ ri f^«> J ri J 



m 



Quo mom so- la -ta de - pe - rit Da-tor tri-mn-phiugia-ti - ae. 



lABTiAKy itUmm. 




3 



zz 



f^ '^ f-* ^ >J 



e 



1 



zc 



Oon-di - tor al - me n-de-mm Ae - ter - na Inx cre-den - ti-om 




f " rJ < g f -^^^^ 



:j « g r-i 



^ 



-^ 




Chris-te ra-demp-tor om-ni-nm £x-an-di pre-oeasap-pli-com. 



a8 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



Aioixur. 




g-p- 



3 



■ ^kV ftk-^^ 



J3l 



iftf 



r ^ r ^\f^ 



T3l 



*^ 



zc 



De-nf cre-a-tor om - ni - Qzn Po - li - que rec - tar ves - ti -em 




EC 



3 



^ 



2ZEi=e±±:e: 



^ 



-^ 



i 



zr 



» 



23: 



Di -em de - oo - ro In - mi-ne Noc-tem lo - po - ris gia - ti - a. 



The two following examples are lastaeolian ; the first begins 
in the lastian and ends in the Aeolian, the second begins in 
the Aeolian and ends in the lastian intense. 



I Iabtiak. I I AbouavT 



3 



f J rj ^ ^j p» f 



I 



-&- 



^ gJ 



ww^^ r r 



:q: 



e 



zc 



Te-ni re-demp-tar gen-ti - nm Ot - ten • de pv-tnm Vir • gi • nis 




I lABTIAjrT 



1 I Abolian. 



i 



3 



i 



i 



-e>- 



^^ 



2a: 



tt 



rj r 



:ec 




Mi - re - tor om - ne aae • co-lom Ta-lii par-tni de-oet De - nm. 



I ABOLIAir. 



J g » f ^ 



3 



r J ^ P 



p Q ea. 



zz: 



^^ 



e 



Ae-ter-ne re - mm oon - di - tor Noc-tem di-em-qne qui re-gii 



^ 



I Iastlah. I I Aboliajt. 



1 I Iastiak. 



1 



■j. j°-J 



3r~gr 



za: 



-CJ gi 



r"f"r Ni l 



Et tern- po -ram dae tern- po-ra Ut al- le-Tei £m - ti-di - um. 

Of the Antiphons it will be sufficient for our present purpose 
to note that they exhibit the same scales as the hymns, with 
the addition of the Hjrpolydian; this scale appears in all its 
forms, and examples of each are here given. 

Htpoltdiav. 

■ J j.j'S^f^j ^°'f^ 




f^g/^rJJrJJjj 



Om-nes an-g«-li e-ixu laa-da-te Do-mi-num de coe-lii. 



THE MATERIALS OP POLYPHONY 



29 



BnizxD Htpoltdiak. 




Vo - faiB da • torn e«t not-te xnys - te - ri - um r^-ni De - - - i. 
InTnraB HTPOLTPUur. 




frrff'Ur^ J ^j rrrr\r.uui^m\ 



Con-io • la - mi - ni oon -lo-la - mi---ni po-pa - le me - ns 




^ ^ r^' f-' f rl^ ri [^ rl rJ 



di-'dt Bo-mi- niu De - nf 



TBB - ter. 



We have now seen that the rimilarity between the first 
Christian music and the Greek contemporary practice was 
complete as rq;ards the technical basis : we may next^ before 
passing on, point out a few of those differences in the character 
and design of the Christian melodies, which, as we have said, 
we should expect to find in the work of a new race with 
something new to utter. 

In the first place, as regards the general character of their 
expression, we are struck by their greater simplicity as com- 
pared with Greek examples, a simplicity arising not from 
timidity in the composer, but from the nature of the new 
conditions and the new object now kept in view. The inten- 
tion and value of a Greek composition, both words and music, 
was purely artistic, and the aim of the composer was directed 
towards the perfect rendering of the general poetic character 
of the words, and even to exact verbal expression ; the aim of 
the Christian composer was entirely different, for the intention 
and value of the words set by him is not artistic but religious. 
The venerated texts of the ritual do not invite a critical appre- 
ciation of their aesthetic merit; indeed, their effect in the 
assembled congregation is often quite independent of the actual 
sense of the words employed, and merely because they are 
sacred, and proper to the common worship, they both arouse 
leligbiis feeling and serve to express it. It is not the exact 



30 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



character of the words therefore, but this general religiouB 
Bentiinent, this common fervour animating the whole congre* 
gation, that the Christian composer seeks to render in the 
music to which the texts are to be sung. Hence the greater 
simplicity and breadth of his music, in which the dry, odd 
phrases and the artistic preoccupation of the Greek hymns 
give place to a smooth and flowing melody, the expression of 
a sustained enthusiasm, but controlled by the ' meek heart and 
due reverence^ proper to the place and occasion of public 
worship. Hence also its general adaptability, and the freedom 
which enables the singer to set the same melody to many texts. 
Another difference, arising out of the nature of the new 
religious sentiment, consists in the greater sweetness and 
tenderness* of the Christian melody. For instance, the old 
Roman hardness is seen in the examples of citharodic song, in 
the employment, as a matter of course, of melodic passages 
in which the interval of the tritone is paramount, thus: — 



HYMN TO HELIOS. 



DosiAV. 




i r J cJ < g cJ rJ 



H 



-3- 



I 



321 



3a: 



Ta - • KTov - ff(v kw - ^1 •> pa- ror d • /li - pitp^ 



IA8TIAN. 




HYMN TO NBMBSIS. 



I^ 



zz 



^ 



i^ 



-3- 



zac 



X2. 



'I ' • ka • 01 /id • Mtu • pa 8i- muf - v^ - 



Ac. 



An examination of the new music, on the other hapd^ reveals 
a striking difference in this respect. It is true that passages 
in which the tritone though indirect is still sufficiently strident 
are not unknown in early Christian melodies, but they occur 
chiefly in compositions in the Dorian and Hjrpolydian modes, 
where the interval forms a part of the modal fifth, and where, 
therefore, if the essential character of the Mode is to be pre- 



THE MATERIALS OF POLYPHONY 31 

served, it is difficult to avoid them, for the earlier melodies 
seldom ranged beyond the fifth ; in the melodies of the lastian 
and Aeolian modes, however, the fifths of which do not contain 
this interval, such passages are comparatively rare, and it is 
probably owing to the ease with which the tritone may be 
avoided in these modes that the enormous majority of the 
early compositions are written in them^. This change of 
feeling, then, is especially characteristic of Christian music ; and 
it may be said that the tendency towards the disuse of the 
tritone, proceeding evidently from a dawning sense of its harsh 
and unsympathetic character, continued to increase among the 
Christian composers, and that the employment of the tetra- 
chord synemmendn, by means of which it might be avoided 
in certain modes likely to display it, became by degrees more 
frequent ; this tendency, however, was generally kept in check, 
even in the construction of polyphonic melodies, by respect for 
the received scales of the modes and for their individual 
character, and by fear of confusion. 

In the cases of two modes only was this attitude of rever- 
ence for the exact scale of the mode systematically abandoned. 
When the full, range of the Aeolian was employed, it seems to 
have been usual, in ornate melodies, to raise the sixth of the 
scale in certain figures, thus : — 




Sc - oe nS-xnen Do-mi-iiive------iiit. . 




de Im - gin quo, &c. 



^ ' Snr pT^ de laoo aatiemies ooateniies dans le Umarius de R^ginoo, le dorien 
et I'bypolydien n'en i^miiBaent gvihre que i6o.— LVolien et I'iastien relAch< 
s'emploieiit^ k I'ezclnsion de toatee les antree formes modalee, daam les monodiee 
de U meue dites Traetua/ Gevaert, MUcpie AnUque, Ac, p. 98 (note). 

It is imporUnt to rememlwr that the lastian is the nearest approach to onr 
modem major scale made by the ancients in serious mnsic, and that the Aeolian is 
actnally onr modem minor scale descending. 



3* 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



Also when the full range of the ReUaced Hypolydian (C-c) 
was employed the highest note but one of the range (b) was 
always depressed, thus : — 




J J fiT^ .1 J J J ^ r J rJ I J 

hm - dent in ooe liB,Ao...Et qui - 



ooe ----- liBy Ac . . Et qui - 




f ^ ^ 



^ ri 



i 



-Gf- 



ins 



mo 



re 




r^^"^ trTZl J J ^"^ ci rJ 5 



Mn - gui - nem 



ta 



mn 



fa - - - de - nxnty && 



Already^ in the year 900^ this last practice — ^the effect of 
which is to create our modem major scale — ^was extended to 
the normal Hypolydian^ and was continued in both scales 
throughout the poljrphonic period. 

Another indication of the new tendency towards sweetness and 
smoothness is to be seen in the abandonment of the excessive 
interval of the major sixth. This interval occurs at least three 
times in the existing Greek compositions ; in the whole of the 
early Christian music there seems to be only one example of it, 
and that doubtful, and it was soon definitely excluded by rule. 

Such, then, is the true ' Ambrosian ' music. It will be seen 
from the table here given that its modes are eight in number, 
and that they are all included within the modal fifth of the 
ancient Dorian, the oldest known musical scale. 



Final B, Intense lastian. 


99 


A, Aeolian. 


99 


A, Intense Hjrpolydian. 


99 


6, lastian. 


99 


G, Relaxed lastian. 


JJ 


F, Hypolydian. 


5> 


F, Relaxed Hypolydian. 


>9 


E, Dorian. 



THE MATERIALS OF POLYPHONY 33 

It would appear that not only the theory of composition 
in these modes^ but the whole of the melodies also, were 
at first preserved entirely by oral tradition, referred probably 
to the sanction of the college of chanters founded by Leo the 
Great (440), for there is no trace at this time either of written 
music or of ecclesiastical treatises upon theory ; but the system 
would seem to have continued, notwithstanding, intact and 
in full vigour until the great catastrophe of the year 547, 
which swept away the last vestiges of the ancient world, and 
in which the classical theory of music disappeared. From 
this date onwards for many years melodies of great beauty, 
written in the old scales, were added to the ritual; but it is 
certain that already, about the year 600, composers were 
writing in ignorance of theoretical principles, and that all 
memory of the names, nature, and origin of the modes in 
use was entirely lost^. 

No documents exist to enlighten us as to the course of 
music during a period of two hundred and fifty years after 
the date just mentioned, though we know that the ritual 
was enriched during this period with the fine additions 
already referred to, which prove that composers were active, 
and that the art in spite of every apparent hindrance was 
advancing. But at length, about the middle of the ninth 
century, appeared the earliest known theoretical treatise 
written by a churchman — the Musica Disciplina of Aurelian 



^ OtMiodonu^ who wrote Ms InstihUUmea Mtuieas about the year 500, had 
evidently a competent knowledge of the old theory, and mareover, in a letter to 
Boetiofl, he eyen ezphdnf carefully his own view of the ethos of the principal 
modes in nse, which he calls by their Graeoo-Ronuui names, Aeolian, lastian, &c. ; 
hot St. Isidore, writing one hundred years later in the time of St. Qregory, 
clearly reveals the complete ignorance of his time. His dicta npon music 
(ooUecled from his Originum aive tfymoioffiarum W>ri XX , and printed by Gerbert 
in the great coUection 8cnptore$ eecUsiaatiei de mtmca sacra poiisnmum) are chiefly 
crude and misleading paraphrases of passages from Cassiodoms and others, from 
which it ii erident that the signification of the terms employed had completely 
escaped him. Modes are not mentioned by him, and keys and genera are 
eonf onnded together. 

WOOLDRIOOS D 



34 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



GRABCO-ROMAN MODES. 


ECCLESIASTICAL MODES. 


FllTAL. 


Kaxb. 


FlKAL. 


Naxi. 


B 






(TVwmwMd a 5A kw9r; tee bfiow.) 


A 


Aeolian 




{Tranapoaed a sOk knew; ms heAw.) 


A 


InteDBe Hypolydiaii 




(TranBpoted a 5A foioer; ms below.) 


G 




G 


Anthentas Tetmrfcoa ^ 


G 




6 


Plagina Tetnrtii 


F 


Hypolydiftn 


F 


Anthentna Tritna 


F 


Belaxed Hypolydian 


F 


Plagina Triti 


E 


Dorian 


E 


Anthentna Dentenia 






E 


Plagina Denteri (with Bb) 

[formerly Intenae laattan; 
aee above.] 






D 


Anthentna Proti (with B^) 

[formerly Aeolian; aee 
ftbove.j 






D 


Plagina PhHi (with Bb) 

[formerly Intenae Hypo- 
lydian; aee above.] 



^ Thna in the earliest treatiaea. The correct form, Tetartusj waa apparently 
never known to the mediaeval theoriata. Psendo-Ariatotle, writing early in 
the thirteenth centory, gfives Tebrardus} Hieronymna de Moravia, in the middle 
of the aame centory, advances aa far aa Tekurdua; Walter Odington, whose treatiae 
datea probably from 1300, or rather later, retnnia to Tetrardua, 



THE MATERIALS OF POLYPHONY 35 

of H6omi6^ — in which we find a new theory of eight modes 
presented to us in a more or less systematic manner. 

The modes indicated by Aurelian — ^which are in fact the 
true ecclesiastical or ^ Gregorian ' modes in their first form — 
are in substance the same as before ; a great change^ however, 
has now taken place in the method of their presentation ; the 
old names have disappeared and are replaced by numbers, 
some of the modes have been transposed, and the whole 
system has been rearranged. It may be well therefore, before 
proceeding further, to give the details of the new system, as 
they are displayed in the compositions of this period, together 
with the probable method of their evolution from the Graeco- 
Roman modes. These may be seen upon the opposite page. 

Here it will be noticed that the four primary or standard 
scales of the old system, the Dorian, Hypolydian, lastian, 
and Aeolian (transposed a fifth lower), occupy the leading 
positions in the new system under the generic title of 
Authentic or Governing modes. They also receive new 
particular names; the transposed Aeolian is called the first 
mode, Protus ; the Dorian becomes the second, Deuterus ; the 
Hypolydian the third, TrUus; and the lastian the fourth or 
Tetraritis* The secondary or derived scales, the ^ intense^ and 
' relaxed ' forms of the lastian and Hypolydian, are now called 
Plagal or Oblique modes, and each is coupled with an Authentic 
mode; the Intense Hjrpolydian becomes Plagius Protiy the 
Intense lastian Plagius Deuteriy the Relaxed Hypolydian 
Plagius Triti, and the Relaxed lastian Plagius Tetrartu 

The terminology of this system sufficientiy proves that its 
source was Greek; moreover, Aurelian himself expressly 
declares the fact. 'Those,' he says, 'who do not relish my 
doctrine, or think to find errors therein, must be told that 
all the distinctions here mentioned, and indeed the whole 
discipline of music, are of Greek origin.' The history of 

^ Gerberti Serqrfor et, voL i. 
D 2 



36 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

the system is obscure^ but since the first trace of it is said to 
have been found in a collection of liturgical song^ called Ocio- 
echos, compiled by St. John of Damascus about the year 
700^ we may suppose that it was elaborated by the Graeco- 
Sjrrian Church during the seventh century; moreover^ there 
seems to be good reason for the belief that it was imposed 
upon the Western Church by one of the Graeco-Sicilian Popes^ 
perhaps by Agatho himself (678-682), who is known to have 
effected the definitive regulation of the melodies of the office ^. 

It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the idea of the 
new system must have arisen from the perception of a highly 
important aspect of the old scales, which is suggested by 
a consideration of the ^relaxed' forms of the lastian and 
Hjrpolydian. In this aspect a subordinate scale is perceived, 
accessory to the standard scale, by means of which the melody, 
while still confined within the compass of an octave and still 
preserving the character proper to the standard scale as a con- 
sequence of the special order of its intervals, ranges through 
a different series of sounds. The new theory of eight modes 
appears to have been an attempt to realize the scheme thus 
suggested by means of a rearrangement of the materials exist- 
ing in the old system. The lastian and Hjrpolydian being 
already supplied with subordinates, each ranging a fourth below 
the standard final, the theorist proceeds to accommodate the 
two 'intense^ scales, as well as may be, to the transposed 
Aeolian and to the Dorian. 

The system thus evolved is defective. It is true that if we 
choose to consider the finals of the two 'intense^ scales as the 
governing notes, and assume in each case that the scale begins 
upon the final instead of upon the second note below it— 
which in the ' intense ^ scales is the true initial — it is possible 
by transposing them a fifth lower to make them fit into the 
empty places and pass for the two required plagal modes. 
But the result is not satisfactory; the new modes thus 

' See Qemerti MOopSi AnHg^ite, <fe. 



THE MATERIALS OF POLYPHONY 



37 



TABLE OF THE EIGHT ECCLESIASTICAL OB GREGORIAN 
MODES IN THEIR FIRST OR GRAECO-SYRIAN FORM 



AVTHBHTVB Tbtbabttb ; known Utor as 
Mode YII. 

{(Xd ladian; apeeies.) 



Plagivb Tbtsabti; known later as 
Mode YIII. 

{Old Relaxed lasUan; G tepecies,) 




lOL 



-^ 



XZ 



p p|0 Q 



xz: 



J3: 



^ 



ga-^ 



1 



(fVtMri ^f ' tnfeyiM */orm.) 



AuTHBKTiTa Tbititb; known later as 
ModeY. 

(OU Hypolydian; F QMciM.) 



Plaoittb Triti; known later as Mode 
YL 

{OldRdaxedHtfpoiydian; F species.) 




^ 



rr-^ 




-&- 



icz 



22: 



zz: 



zc 



:^=22: 



(IVfiai </< tfifofiM'/onn.) 



AvTHBKTiTB DiVTBBUS; known later as 
Mode III. 

[Old Dorian; S QMeiei.) 



PLAOnrs DXTTTBBi; known later as 
Mode lY. 

(Old /nfefiM losfion ; range G-g, fiwA B ; 
transposed a fifth lowerf and beginning 
upon the final.) 

1 False fifth. I 




ZZ 



^^^ 



33: 



zz 



A U T HBJTU B Pbottb; known later as 

Mode I. 
(OM Aeolian s A species, transposed a 

fifth lower.) 



PULGITB Pboti; known later as 
Mode IL 

{Old Intenss Hypoigdian; range F~f, 
finod A ; transposed a fifth loioer, and 
beginning upon the final) 




IE 



TJ <» 



^ 



-^ 



zz 



t±h±^ 



"cr 



lo: 



;©=n: 




"cr 



38 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

obtained do not perform the same office with regard to their 
respective authentic modes as the true Pkigal or old ^ relaxed ' 
scales with regard to the Authentic Tritus and Tetrartus ; the 
fact of transposition in no way alters the scale^ nor does 
a range of a third below the final create a true Plagal 
character^ such as is possessed by a 'relaxed^ scale^ while 
the alteration of the initial note creates a difference which 
is just sufficient to cause confusion and no more; the new 
Ploffius Proti and Plagius Deuteri therefore remain essentially 
lastian and Hypolydian, and have no real connexion with the 
modes with which they are coupled. Furthermore the neces- 
sity of employing the tetrachord synemmendn in the three 
transposed scales was in itself destructive of the symmetry 
of the system, and in the case of Plagius Deuteri it even 
creates a false fifth, as will be seen from the Table given 
upon the previous page. 

A system so illogical and imsatisfactory as this could not 
long be maintained, and musicians, guided probably by 
Boetius, found in the old classic species the basis of a reform. 
This reform was by no means drastic or violent. The leading 
feature of the Graeco-Syrian scheme, the system of authentic 
and plagal modes, which was evidently firmly established, and 
which had no doubt revealed itself as the means of greatly 
enlarging the resources of melody, was retained; three of its 
authentic modes also, the Deuterus, Tritus, and Tetrartus, being 
recognized as identical with the E, F, and G species of the 
Greeks, were left untouched ; the Authentic Protus, however, 
was altered by the elimination of the Bb, and was made to 
conform entirely to the D species of the Greeks. The 
Plagal Tritus and Tetrartus of the Graeco-Syrian scheme 
(the old relaxed lastian and relaxed Hypolydian) were also 
preserved, and the principle upon which they had been con- 
structed, that is to say the division of the original scale at 
the fifth and the removal of the tetrachord an octave lower, 
was adopted as the model for the reform of the Plagal Deuterus 



THE MATERIALS OF POLYPHONY 



39 



TABLE OF THE BCCLSSIA8TICAL MODES IN 



THEIB FINAL FOBM 



AuTHurrio. 

Mod«L 

Fonnerlj AFTHnrruB Pbotub. 



• Plagal. 

ModfllL 

Fonnerly PLAeiUB PBOTX. 




22=^ 



ZZ 



-^ 



■^ 




fir 



IX. 



xr-^ 



3a: 



ID- 



ModAlIL 

Fbcmerij AuTHUTUB DnrrnuB. 



ModelV. 

Formeriy Piagiub Diutbu. 




ZZ 



ZZ 



« Q 



zee 



. 



zz 



G> " 



% 



ModeV. 

Fonneily Authihtub Tbitub. 



ModeYI. 

Fomierly PLAenrB Tbiti. 




I 



€> " 



^ 



ZZ 



o w 



zz 



^S=z 



^ 



zz 



Mode TIL 

Fonnerly Authkbtub Trbabtvb. 



Mode Yin. 

Formerly PLAenm Titeabti. 




T3-fi» 



.Ol 



CI ^ ^ 



3a: 



^5= 



-«>- 



zz 



^ 



zz 



40 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

and Protus. By means of these alterations musicians were 
put into possession of a consistent and uniform system^ which 
preserved its authority and its usefulness until within com- 
paratively recent times, and the influence of which is still to 
be perceived even in our own day. 

The preliminary part of our work is now concluded. We 
have marked the origin of the polyphonic principle in the 
Melodic period of music, we have noted its undeveloped and 
dormant existence during the whole of that period, and we 
have exhibited the growth meanwhile of the technical materials 
which were to be adopted by it upon its eventual waking 
and first activity; we are therefore prepared to consider its 
actual rise and progress, which may be said to date from 
the period at which we have now arrived. But here, befcx^ 
passing on, a final question of considerable interest presents 
itself, with respect to the circumstances which had at length 
rendered possible the development of the polyphonic principle. 
This principle, which we saw to be entirely foreign to the 
nature of Greek music, was now to be adopted by the Christian 
composers, and to become the essential characteristic of their 
work. Tet we have seen that hitherto Christian music had 
been, as regards its outward manifestation, practically the 
same as the Greek. This fact was very apparent in our brief 
survey of the system which was to supply Polyphony with its 
material; we then perceived the complete continuity of the 
art through the point of junction between the Antique and 
Christian worlds; we saw that certain resources, once highly 
prized by the Greeks, were passing out of use during the period 
which gave rise to Christian music; and we found that the 
Christian composers, neglecting these resources, adopted exactly 
those which were most employed by the practitioners of their 
own time, and that their music conforms to the rules of those 
practitioners not only in this general respect, but also as 
regards comparatively minute details. The connexion and 
technical resemblance being thus complete, the new music 



THE MATERIALS OF POLYPHONY 41 

ti^uld seem at first sight to offer as little room for the develop- 
ment of the polyphonic principle as the old. Down to the 
ninth century, the work of the Latin Church being musically 
speaking nothing but the reanimation and rehabilitation of 
the dying art of the Greeks, Christian music, equally with the 
Greek, illustrates strictly the melodic principle, and seems 
equally with the Greek to exclude every other. Why then, 
it may be asked, did Christian music eventually develop new 
forms impossible to the Greek? Why, when it had reached 
the culminating point of its advance upon the old melodic 
basis, did it not at once fall, like the Greek, into a condition 
of stagnation and decay, the natural lot of every art which 
hais exhausted the possibilities proper to its original technical 
resources? What special inward force enlarged its scope, 
developed Polyphony, and created the magnificent epoch which 
closed with Palestrina? ^ 

The mainspring of the whole development of music by the 
Italians and northern people lies of course in the fact that in 
music the new races found for the first time an art to cultivate ; 
and cultivation, in these circumstances, was sure sooner or 
later to reveal fresh technical possibilities in the apparently 
exhausted material. The question might therefore be answered 
in a general way by a reference to the freshness and abounding 
energy of the new race, and every succeeding advance during 
the five centuries which followed might also be considered as 
an effect of the original impulse. But a more particular answer 
should be given. The perception of these fresh possibilities was 
not absolutely spontaneous, nor due to the mere observation 
by an untried race of the inherent powers of the material, nor 
did Polyphony now arise merely because it was at this time 
a possible new form of technique. An occaedon or impulse 
was also necessary. The development of an art is not casual, 
but moves in obedience to certain laws based upon the natural 
conespondence existing between its two main constituents, the 
powers of its material on the one hand, and the properties of 



4% METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

the object to be represented on the other ; it may occur dther 
through the perception of some new property in the object, 
suggestive of a new treatment of the material and resultmg in 
a new form of expression and an enlaigement of the technical 
resources, or conversely through the discovery of some new 
technical means for which the object is then seen to provide 
suitable employment. In the art of music therefore, as in all 
others, not only a new technical means, but a new quality or 
principle in the object must be perceived in order to set for- 
ward a new development and to create a new epoch, and since 
the art of music finds its object in the world of feeling and 
sentiment, the principle which we seek, corresponding to the 
possible new form of technique, and finding its complete 
expression only in that form, must be emotional in character. 

But in what direction are we to look for the rise of such 
a principle; what recent circumstance m the history of music 
can be seen as. able or likely to originate it ? 

In our present point of view, the controUing circumstance in 
the history of music at this period was undoubtedly the 
employment of its resources in the public worship of the 
Church. But for this circumstance music would probably not 
have been, as it was, the first of the arts to rise again in Italy. 
Had music upon its adoption by the Italians remained a secular 
pastime, it is difficult to see when or by what means its fresh 
growth could have been begun; it might have lain for an 
indefinite period in the same condition as the formative arts, 
which remained for many centuries after the recognition of 
Christianity ineffective and ignorant of their true direction. 
But music was never unsure of its aim. From the first it 
found in the public worship of the Church a field exactly 
suitable to its fresh development — a new range of representa- 
tion, a new kind of emotion to express. 

Here, then, in this circumstance of its new ecclesiastical 
use, we may look to find the source of the emotional prin- 
ciple which is to be seen as chiefly animating Christian music^ 



THE MATERIALS OF POLYPHONY 43 

the inward force which at the critical moment enlarged its 
scope and continued its life with fresh vigour; and we may 
identify it with the essential principle of Christian public 
worship^ a principle unknown to the Greeks and impossible 
of application in the formative arts even when they were 
devoted to religious uses — the congregational principle. 

We have seen that music upon its first adoption by the 
Church at once surrendered itself to the expression of congre- 
gational feeling — to the utterance, that is to say, of the general 
sentiment of the assembled community; we saw that it thus 
abandoned the old Greek principle, which is that of the purely 
individual utterance preoccupied by the artistic problem, and 
created a new kind of song of greater breadth and of more 
general application, in which the individual utterance, 
now governed by the common fervour, is brought to 
represent the collective state of mind; and in this first 
manifestation of the congregational principle, as perceived 
in its main or general aspect. Christian music found the 
inspiration which enabled it to perform its first important 
task, the exhibition of a new perfection upon the old melodic 
basis. 

But it is evident that the influence of the congregational 
principle upon music could not be exhausted in its first effects ; 
the expression of its immense essential energy must inevitably 
be continued in some new phase of activity, and its further 
development was certain. Moreover, the actual direction of 
this development towards the more comprehensive expression 
of the common worship, a closer yet more ideal representation 
of the assembled community, is clearly indicated. ' The congre- 
gation was now to be manifested in its particularity, and 
though still perceived as collective and united in virtue of the 
common act of worship, was to be recognized also in its 
individual and manifold elements; the individual utterances 
therefore were now to be seen as various yet united in one 
whole^ as distinct yet blended in a general consonance. 



44 METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 

The musical expression of this further development of the 
congregational principle^ this recognition of two elements^ 
variety and unity^ belongs entirely to Polyphony. For it is 
clear that the old technical symbol of the union of the individual 
and collective elements which was suitable to the Greek and 
early Christian music — the reduplication of the melody at the 
distance of an octave^ in which the different voices are in effect 
singing the same note, will not suffice for the expression of the 
new element of variety^ which requires that the voices shall 
be singing obviously different notes; translated into terms of 
technique, therefore, the new element implies separate parts 
for different kinds of voices, and the juxtaposition of distinct 
melodies. On the other hand, the element of imity, the 
necessity for consonance, remains, and the distinct melodies 
therefore must be controlled by the laws of musical agree- 
ment; the movements of the individual voice, which formerly 
ranged at will among the sounds of the scale, must now 
become subject throughout to the consideration of regard for 
others, through which alone the general concord can be main- 
tained, and the musician, renouncing the freedom upon which 
the beauty of much of his former work depended, must write 
henceforward in obedience to strict law. Thus Christian music 
entered upon the path of contrapuntal composition, which was 
to be its second and greater task^ and the circumstances having 
at length become favourable to its development the dormant 
principle of Polyphony became active. 



CHAPTER IV 



OBGANUM OB DIAPHOXT 



Ws may of course suppose that the Oreek practice of 
magadizing^ in which as we have seen lay .the fundamental 
principle of Polyphony^ was continued in the Latin Churchy 
and that the simultaneous utterance of the melody by the 
voices of boys and men was recognized by the Italians^ as by 
the Greeks^ as a distinct musical effect, arising from a series 
of repetitions of the consonance of the octave. But no advance 
apparentiy beyond the Greek position with regard to this 
practice was made during the earlier period of the history 
of the Churchy and we look in vain^ in the treatises upon 
music by Christian writers down to the seventh century, for 
any clear proof of the definite acceptance of magadizing as an 
artistic means, or for any acknowledgement of the change of 
principle, the transfer of the idea of consonance from melody 
to harmony, which is actually involved in its adoption. It was 
no doubt during the two centuries which followed, centuries 
sterile in respect of literary production but fruitful and signifi- 
cant with regard to music, that these necessary first steps 
forward in the direction of Polyphony were made ; for in the 
earliest treatises written after the reawakening of literary 
effort, towards the close of the ninth century, we find distinct 
reference to a form of art called organizing^ which consisted 
in the singing of concords by concurrent voices, and also 



46 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

a definition of consonance revealing for the first time that 
view of its nature in which it is seen as existing not between 
intervals but between simultaneous sounds^. 

It would appear^ therefore, that the practice of symphonious 
singing and playing, called organizing, which probably at tUs 
time prevailed both within and without the Church, was now 
no longer regarded by the theorists with indifference as an 

' The uttemuoes of tome of the ninth oentory writers, however, inch as 
Anrelian of 'RAomi and Bemy of Anxerre (though these are quoted by M. de 
ConBsemaker in his JSTMoiiv de VHarmoide au Moym Age as making mention of 
dmnltaneons singing of concords), leave ns in considerable doubt, owing to 
the amlnguity of their language, with respect to their recognition of music 
of more than one voice. When for instance Anrelian says, 'In harmonica 
(musica) quidem oonnderatio manet sonomm, uti scUicet gnyw soni acntis 
oongruenter copulati oompagem effidant vocum,' or Bemy, ' Harmonia est con- 
sonantia et coadunatio vocum,* both may well be following older writers, both 
Greek and Latin, who use the word Haarmoma in a general sense, or, if specially, 
to denote melody. Vox also, in the older writers signifies the note, and allusions 
to the mutual adaptation, mixture and blending of notes in one whole would in 
their works refer to the construction of songs for a nngle vdce. In the absence 
therefore of further definition, which is not supplied, the intention of Anrelian 
and Bemy is not clear. But Begino (Abbot of Pram in 89J) leaves us in no 
doubt as to his meaning, and, though he makes no mention of special forms of 
simultaneous singing of concords, defines consonance and dissonance, from the 
polyphonic point of view, in an extremely dear and interesting manner, thus : — 
' Diifinitur autem ita consonantia; oonsonantia est dissimilium inter se vocum in 
unum redacta concordia. Alitor; cons(»antia est acuti soni gravisqne mistura, 
suaviter uniformiterque auribus accidens. £t contra dissonantia est duorum 
sonorum sibimet permistorum ad aurem veniens aspers atque iniucunda per- 
cnssio. CJonsonantiam vero lioet annum sensus diiudicet, ratio tamen perpendit. 
Quotiens enim duae chordae intenduntur, et una ex his gravius, altera acutiua 
resonat, simulque pulsae reddunt permistum quodammodo et suavem sonum, 
duaeque voces in unum quasi coniunotae coalescunt, tunc fit ea quod didtur 
oonsonantia. Gum vero simul pulsis sibi quisque contraire nititur, nee permisoent 
ad aurem suavem atque unum ex duobus compositum sonum, tunc est quae 
didtur dissonantia.' De Harmonica InetUuHane, 10. 

Hucbald (monk of St. Amand, born about 840) is even more explidt : — ' Aliud 
enim est oonsonantia, aliud intervallum. Consonantia siquidem est duorum 
sonorum rata et concordabilis permixtio, quae non aliter constabit nisi duo altiin- 
secus e^ti soni in unam nmul modulationem oonveniant, ut fit cum virilis ac 
puerilis vox pariter sonuerint^ vel etiam in eo quod consuete organisationem 
vocaat.' De Harmoniea InsNMione, 

It is worthy of remark that the name here given by the Frankish writer to the 
practice of symphonious singing is, like that given to it by the old Greeks, 
an adaptation of the name of the instrument upon which it might be imitated 
or accompanied. 



ORGANUM OR DIAPHONY 47 

accident or pleasant trick of performance, but was beginning 
to engage their serious attention and to reveal some glimpses 
of the important principles contained in it. No formal recog- 
nition of its methods, however, seems to have been accorded 
until the end of the following century, when a writer, supposed 
to be Otger or Odo, abbot of St. Pons de Tomidres in Provence, 
in a treatise called Murica Enchiriadis (until lately ascribed to 
Hucbald of St. Amand), frankly accepts the whole system in 
its existing state as a part of music, and presents it in the 
form of a completely regulated procedure. A^ commentary 
upon this work, of similar date, called SchoUa Enchiriadis, 
exhibits much of the same material in the form of a dialogue 
between master and pupil, in simpler style and with more 
numerous examples. 

From these sources we discover that the advance in the 
direction of Polyphony which at this time had already been 
effected by practical musicians was even greater than might 
have been supposed; for not only is it evident that in addition 
to the 6ld magadized octave the consonances of the fourth 
and fifth were now sung in parallel movement, both simply 
in two parts and in various combinations of three and four 
voices, but it appears that a new and more complex kind of 
sjrmphonious performance, in which concord is mingled with 
discord, and in which the organizing voices may almost be 
said to display a certain measure of independence, was also 
in use. 

Moreover the view of consonance in which it is seen as 
existing rather between simultaneous than consecutive sounds 
is now firmly established and developed ; the consonances are 
described imder the name of symphonies; and the origin both 
of the new view of them and of their new designation is traced 
to the practice of symphonious singing, which is called Orga- 
num or Diaphony. 

Attempts have often been made, and indeed even quite 
recently, to establish a real distinction between the things 



48 METHOD OP MUSICAI. ART 

signified by these two names ; and this attempt has generally 
been directed towards an expression of the difference existing 
between that kind of music which was composed entirely of 
similar concords and that which admitted the presence of dis- 
similar concords and the union of concord with discord^ and 
sometimes one and sometimes the other has been called either 
Organum or Diaphony ; but it must be said that in the works 
of the old writers^ from whom alone our knowledge of the 
subject is derived, no such distinction is to be obsen^ed; 
indeed, thes^ authors are always most careful, as if in fear 
of misapprehension, to insist upon the fact that both name s 
signify th e same thing , and that they are in fact nothing 
more than alternative appellations of the music, of whatever 
kind, which consisted in the symphonious utterance of separate 
voices^. And indeed, for the contemporary musician, the 
difference between the two kinds of music then prevailing was 
in no respect significant or suggestive of distinct names, the 
one kind arising naturally out of the other ; nor does it appear 
that at its first invention the freer sort was considered as in 
any way intrinsically better or more agreeable to the ear than 
its parent. For us, however, and from our present point of 
view, a difference of the most vital kind is easily perceived; 
for while the strict kind of Organum or Diaphony is evidently 
no more than a logical extension of the ancient practice of 

^ ' Nunc id qao proprie BymphoniM dicantur et avait, id e«t qoaliter eaedem 
voces sese invicem cauendo habeant, proBequamiir. Haec namqae eet qoam 
Diaphoniam cantilenam, vel assoete Organum, Tocamos.* — Musica BnchiriadU^ 
cap xiii. ' Diaphonia Yocam disiimctio sonat, qaam nos Organum vocamus, cum 
diaiunctae ab invicem voces et concorditer dissonanfc, et dissonantes concordant/ — 
Qnido Aretinus, Miertiogv», cap. xviii. 'Est ergo Diaphonia oongrua vocom 
dissonantiay quae ad minus per duos cantantes agitur: ita scilicet, ut altero 
rectam modulationem tenente, alter per alienos sonos apte circueat, et in singulis 
respirationibns ambo in eadem voce, vel per diapason conveniant. Qui canendi 
modus vulgariter Organum dicitur, eo quod vox humana apte dissonans simUi- 
tudinem exprimat instrumenti quod Organum vocatur. Interpretatur autem Dia- 
phonia dualis vox vel dissonantia.* — lohannes Cotto, Jfufftca, cap. xxiii. Disaonaiu, 
it should be mentioned, in these writers signifies nothing more than dissimilar in 
sound. 



ORGANUM OR DIAPHONY 49 

magadizing^ in which the individual element of Polyphony 
was overpowered by the collective element and sacrificed to it^ 
in the freer kind the individual element at length receives 
recognition^ if not an opportunity for development. 

The consonances or symphonies upon which the whole 
system depended were six in number ; three simple, the Octave, 
Fifth, and Fourth, and three composite, the double Octave, 
the Octave with the Fifth, and the Octave with the Fourth. 
Corresponding to these two kinds of symphonies or con- 
sonances the strict Organum or Diaphony was also of two 
kinds; simple, or consisting of the simple consonance sung 
by two voices, and composite, in which one or both voices 
were doubled at various intervals, thus creating composite 
consonances and different combinations of voices. 

These methods may best be illustrated by examples taken 
from the Musica Enchiriadis and the Scholia Enchiriadis* 

It may perhaps be assumed that the parallel movement of 
the simple consonances and of the double octave needs no 
separate exhibition, and we may proceed at once to consider 
an example of the composite Diaphony of the Fifth. Here 
it is to be observed that the simple consonance first uttered 
by the voof principalis, singing the melody or subject, and the 
vox oryanalis, singing the accompaniment in the fifth below 
in parallel movement with the subject, is embellished in two 
ways ; the voof principalis is doubled at the octave below, and 
the vox organalis at the octave above, thus at once giving rise 
to three new intervals, namely, the octave and the fourth, 
which are now heard advancing in parallel movement both 
above and below the original fifth, and the octave with the 
fourth^ which is perceived as existing between the extreme 
voices. It is of course obvious that had an organum of three 
parts been desired one only of the original voices would have 
been doubled, and the octave would then have been the limit- 
ing interval of the composition ; this will be evident from the 
arrangement of the brackets in our illustration. 

WOOLDKIDOB S 



50 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 




THBFmH,, 
SIXVLB. 




THE FIFTH^ COMPOSITE. 



VooB organtOU douhUd atUteSv$ o&om. (Ifnt. EnekMadU.) 



22: 



rj rj rj : 



zz 



<g €? 



32 



ZC 



Sit glo - 



ri-ft Do-mi-ni in ne-ca-U 



,' gj cj iza: 



zz: 



zz 



-^ 



g p 




Sit glo - ri-ft Do-mi-ni inne-cn-lA 
Vox orgemalU, 



■Bl 



TJ rj rjL 



-JJl 



-& — ^ 



3a: 



" " 



Sit glo - ri-ft Do-mi-ni in 
roxprlne^MiKt doubM o^ a« 8m Mow. 



ne - en- 1a 



32: 



Q a l a: 



zz: 



-e» — &- 



zz: 



-^ 



rj fj 



Sit glo 



ri-a Do-mi-ni in tae-ca-la 



"O — ^s^ 



rj> rj ri « rj r j rj ^ m 



zr 



lae - ta - bi - tor Do - mi • nns in o - pe - ri - bos in - ib. 



/ 



^^ <^^ o g rj " Q ^ rJT 



< g g 



" ^ 



lae - ta - bi - tor Do - mi - nmi in o - pe • ri - bos ga - is. 



> 



) 



« rj rj rj ci .ci ck ^ r^ 



lOL 



■^ 



■O" 



lae - ta - bi - tor Do - mi - nns in o - pe - ri - bos sn - is. 



r^ ^ r^ r^ r^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 



^— q: 



zz 



-• — ^- 



lae - ta - bi - tor Do - mi - nns in o - pe - ri - bos sn - is. 



In the case of the composite Diaphony of the Fourth the 
doubling of the two original voices at the Octave gives 
the consonances of the Fifth ai^d Octave above and below 
the simple Diaphony^ the Octave with the Fifth being now 
perceived between the extreme parts. 



0R6ANUM OR DIAPHONY 



5' 



THB FOURTH, COUP08ITB. 





f\ 


VoKorifancaUdoiMedattkeSveiAoM, (Ifiif. EfuMriadU,) 




ifc .. H 






o— " - ■ — ■■ 

Ta pa - tris lem - pi - tar - nmi et 
Vox prindpaHB, 


fl - li-Of. 
1 




m 


Y 


^--r2"dr\ 


Thb Fovbth, 

BXMPLB. \ 


ZrZ 


Ta pa - tri» win - pi - ter - xnis et 
j= — r3 — P3 — ra — ra — ra — «- 






i&^ 




'^ " o II 


i 


^^ iif 






Ta pa - tris lem - pi - ter - nns et 
Vox prineipaUs douUed aiiheBve Mow. 


fi . U-ot. 








1 




■^^— 




^. C» 6? 1 






Ta pa - trit lem - pi - ter - not et fl - li • at . 



A question of considerable importance is raised by this 
example. It will be observed that, as a result of the regular 
movement of the Diaphony of Diatessaron, the discordant 
interval of the Tritone Fourth is twice heard, sung between 
the two original voices, and it will also be obvious that the 
interval of the Imperfect Fifth, although it did not occur in our 
previous example^ must be of equally possible occurrence in the 
Diaphony of Diapente, for in that method F in the upper 
voice must be accompanied by B1| in the lower as certainly as 
B 1| in the upper voice must in the Diaphony of Diatessaron be 
accompanied by F in the lower. What then at this time, it 
may be asked, was the method of dealing in performance with 
these two intervals ? Were they sung as they are written, or 
were they made perfect by the substitution of Bb for B i], or was 
the phrase containing them altered in some other manner ? 

With r^ard to the treatment of the discord of the Imper- 
fect Fifth, it may be answered, we are without distinct infor- 
mation ; the treatises from which we derive our knowledge of 

S 2 



57, METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

Organum or Diaphony do not clearly refer to the use of this 
interval or to any difficulty which might be said to arise from 
its occurrence between two voices; indeed, we are told on 
the other hand not only that the Diaphony of Diapente was 
heard with pleasure^, but that it was regarded, from the pomt 
of view of continuous consonance, as only second in perfection 
to the symphony of the octave itself. With regard to the 
treatment of the Tritone Fourth, however, we are not left in 
doubt, except indeed with respect to the consistency of the 
author of the Enchiriadis; for although in chap. xiv. of his 
work he has said of our example of the Fourth composite that 
the voices will be perceived as sounding agreeably together^, 
in chap. xvii. we are told that the symphony of Diatessaron, 
regarded from the point of view of continuous consonance, 
is, on account of the Tritone (which as we have seen occurs 
in our example), so defective as to be often quite unsuitable 
for Diaphony, without alteration. In this point of view the 
Tritone, which may occur in all scales, is realized as discordant 
and impossible, and its avoidance is regarded as a necessity. 
Accordingly we find that when in the Diaphony of Diatessaron 
the regular movement of the vox organalis would give rise to 
the interval of the Tritone, regular movement is abandoned, 
and an alternative method adopted^. 

This alternative method was based upon the facts which 
were understood as governing the existence of the Tritone. 
For the writers of this period the interval arose out of the 

^ 'Hiflqoe rationilnu hae doae symphoiiiae (the doubled diaphonies of the 
oompoflite form) Tarias misoent daloeeqae cantilenas.' Mus. EnchirkuUa, cap. xiv. 

* ' Igitnr abedlntissime in diapason symphonia maiore prae caeteris perfectione 
diversae ad invioem voces resonant. Seconda ab hao est symphonia diapente.' 
Ibid., cap. xtU. 

' ' Senties hniasmodi proportionom voces suaviter ad invicem resonare.* Ibid., 
cap. xiv. 

* 'At in diatessaron, qnoniam non per onmem sonorum seriem quards locia 
soaviter siln phthongi ooncordant^ ideo neo absolute nt in caeteris symphoniaca 
editnr cantilena. Ergo in hoc genere cantionis sua quadam lege vocibns vooea 
divinitns accommodantur.' Ibid., cap. xvii. 



ORGANUM OR DIAPHONY 



53 



conjunction of the minor third of one tetrachord with the major 
second of another ^^ thus: — 




1 r 



■zr 



rj ^ 



in: 



% 



:i3L 



i 



zz 



^ 



-rsL 



zc 



The vox organdliSy therefore^ can never go below the fourth 
sound of the lower tetrachord. In those cases in which the 
vox principalis begins in such a manner that the vox organalis 
cannot accompany at the Fourth without passing below this 
fourth sounds then the vox organalis must begin upon the 
same note as the principalis and hold it until it is possible to 
follow the principalis at the Fourth; and in the same way 
the organalis must also close in unison when the close of the 
principalis will not admit of an accompaniment at the Fourth^. 

The method is well shown in the following example : — 

FREE OROANUM; THE FOURTH^ SIMPLE. 



/• 


Vox prindpaltB. 


""S — ^^ — '^ 


Q 




(Ifta. EnaUriadi$,) 

— ra 3:: "-i 


( 


tffi^L r^ ^ " 




^ ^ & — c-M 


1 


V 


1 




Rex ooe - U 

Far oryofutfif. 


Do - mi - ne 


ma - 


- ris 


un - di - 80 - ni 


f 




a 




--z^r- ^ rj \ 


L 


*s^|^ cj a a 


a v*- ^ 


f. *-» c» ^ 1 



Rex 006 - li Do • mi • 



ma-ris un-di-flo-ni 



* ' Per omnem enim lononim seriem tritos rabquartiiB (the third 0oand of the 
lower tetrachord) deotero (the leeond sound of the tetrachord next above) loliu a 
■ymphooia deficit, et inoonBonmi ei eiBcitor, eo quod loliis diatessaron symphoniae 
menrarun excedeni, triboB integris tonis a praefato 0ono elongator, cai extat 
•abqnartiu.' Mub. Enehiriadi$, cap. xvii. 

* It will be remembered that in the lowest tetrachord of the Graeoo-Syrian 
■cala, apparently still in use at this time, the B was flat; in the Greek scale 
it waenatond. 

* 'Qoapropter et Ttsfi, quae organalis dicitnr, Tooem alteram, quae vocatur 
principalis, eo.modo comitari scdet, at in qnolibet tetrachordo, in qoalibet 



54 



METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 




ro: 



za: 



-^ 



n f J I 



2a: 



Ti-ta-nia ni-U-di sqna - U - di - qoe so - ti 




|> « fJ f J fJ 



-© — ^ 



ra rj ^- 



zz 



n-ta-nU ni-ti-di aqpik - li - di - qua so - li 




LE 



.a_cL 



I 



a. 



t l^ , rj t ; r> fl , ,^ o 



zz 



zz: 



Te hu-mi-lef fa-ma-li mo-dn-lis fa-ne-nn-do pi -is 




?-^ 



rj rj rj rj rj rj f j 



3a: 



fa ci 



lo: 



gg rj "^ 



3a: 



Te hu-mi-lef fa - mn -ti mo- da -tie to- ne-zan-do pi - U 




. rj rj O t| r>-<5»--<5»-t|^ ^ ^^ t | 



:□: 



-c^ 



Se in -be -as fla-gi-tant Ta-ri-is U-be-ia-re ma-lis. 



gj cj ^ fj fj f-iE zzr 



zz: 



m 




t 



n rj ^ fxz^ 



zz 



8e la-be-as ila-gi-tant Ta-ri-is U-be-ia-re ma-tis. 



particola (line, verse, or diyision of the song), nee infra tetiardnm sonnm 
desoendat positione, nee inchoatione levetnr, obstante triti son! inconsonantia, 
qui tetrardo est snbsecnndns.* Ifus. Enchiriadi^^ cap. xvii. 

^ * Ad hanc descriptionem canendo fadle sentitnr, qnomodo in deseriptis dnobns 
membris {Btx coeli, kc, et TUania niUdi, Ac.), sicnt subtos C tetiardnm sonnm, 
organalis vox responsnm incipere non potest, ita snbtns enmdem non valet 
positione progvedi, et ob hoc in finalitate positionnm a voce principal! occnpetnr, 
at ambae in nnnm conveniant, qnod modo altiora, modo sammissiora loca, 
oigannm petat.* Ibid., cap. xvii. 

* * Qaemadmodnm in Innis prioribns membris, primae tres syllabae, qnae sonant 
tetrardnm C, archoam D, deateram £, responsnm organale snb tetrardo non 
habent, videlicet propter denteri soni inconsonantiam ad sonnm tritnm, qui 
tetrardo est snbsecandns; sic et in seqoentibas his oommatibos {Te humUes, ^., 
et Se tUbeaa, Ac.), dnm excelsiozis exstent levationis ac positionis, oebiori qnoque 
loco, eadem lege et oigannm ooaictatar. Similiter enim in tribos prindpaliboa 
sonis, tetrardo G, archoo A, dentero B, vox organalis rite snb tetrardo respondere 
neqnit, sed moram in eodem agit, dam in snbsecnndo eins ratam responsam non 
invenit.* Ibid., cap. xviii. 



OROANUM OR DIAPHONY 



55 



It may be observed that sometimes, as an alternative method, 
the lower voice takes the major third or the perfect fifth to the 
B t| , as here, at the words famuli, fiagitant, moduUs, and variis. 

In addition to the forgoing example the author gives, as 
a further illustration of the influence of the Tritone upon the 
Diaphony of Diatessaron, a number of transpositions of the 
chant-fragment Tu Patris, &c., as follows : — 



Tows Fbotub. 




22 



rj rj f J r^ 






Ta pa - tm fern - pi • ter • nus 



fi 



U - vs. 



zz 



3a: 



-^- 



■ g >- 



zz 



is: 



-^- 



zz 



With respect to this example it is pointed out that, although 
a consonant opening is possible, a corresponding treatment of 
the dose is out of the question, owing to the occurrence of E 
in the melody, to which the oiganal response is Bb. 




Toinm DsuTiBUS (plagnKs). 



-9 ^^ 



ZZ 



zz 



zz 



Ta pa - trU tem -pi-ter-nns ei ii-U-iis. 



rj tJ 



:zz 



zz 



zz 



3a: 



iET 



ZZ 



Here is shown the proper treatment of the organal response, 
which cannot proceed regularly either at the opening or at the 
close. 



TovuB TaiTUB. 



^ 



-^ 



zz 



zz 



3a: 



zz 



^ r^ 



Ta 



pa . tm 



- pi - ter • noi 



il 



11 - at. 



In this mode, we are told, no organal response is possible, 
probably because of the occurrence of the Tritone between 



56 METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 

the reciting note of the melody and an accompaniment in the 
fourth below. 

TOVUB TBTaAXBUB. 




^ 



rj rj r^ rj rji ^ t^ fj 



Ta pa - trU fern -pi-ter-nni es fi-li- 



-» d- 



g^ g> » i ^ ^g 



Here the response cannot conTeniendy descend at all into 
its proper region, the second note in the opening and the last 
note but one before the dose involving the discordance of the 
Tritone if strictly accompanied. The proper treatment is 
shown. 

Such then are the views of the author of Musica Enchiriadis 
with respect to the symphony of Diatessaron and to the manner 
of dealing with the false interval of the Tritone which is peculiar 
to it. He recognizes the discordance of the Tritone as the 
cause of a distinct inferiority in the symphony of Diatessaron 
as compared with those of Diapente and Diapason, and he lays 
down the rules of a method which avoids the use of the offend- 
ing interval. 

It is worthy of remark that the author of the commentary 
called Scholia EnchiriadiSj while also recognizing the inferiority 
of the symphony of Diatessaron from the point of view of 
parallel singing, and adopting the rules already given for 
the treatment of Diaphony in that interval, assigns a dif- 
ferent reason for the freedom of the vox organcJis. He 
makes no mention of the Tritone, but on the other hand 
draws our attention to the fact that whereas in the symphony 
of Diapason both voices are singing absolutely in the same 
mode and in the symphony of Diapente almost absolutely 
so, in that of Diatessaron the difference of mode is obvious 
and unmistakeable ; and we learn that it \b the impro- 
priety of this combination of two different modes or 



ORGANUM OR DIAPHONY 57 

species of the scale, throughout the whole of a composition, 
which in his view gives rise to the necessity for a free treat- 
ment^. 

It would appear from this treatise that when strictly parallel 
fourths are given in the contemporary works as examples of 
the composite Diaphony of Diatessaron they must be con- 
sidered either as merely theoretical or as representing a 
method which was already passing out of use, for in the 
combinations exhibited in the author's own illustrations of 
the treatment of this interval the vox organalis is always, and 
its reduplication often, free; this will be evident from the 
following selected specimens: — 

THE FOURTH, SIMPLE. 
Vox principaHa. (SeMUa Bnehiriadii.) 

^-p^''-Q gj g o a — gy g o p p Q Q „-I 
NO0 qui vi - vi - mvm be-ne-di - d- mus Do - mi-num 
Vox organaliB, 




ei^-o' g a -pj- n rj rj n rj rj rj 



Q rj 



Kos qui tI - vi - mus be-ne-di-ci- mm Do - nu-num 



' * DiaeipUtuB, Qnare in Diatessaron symphonia vox organalis sic absolute 
oonvenire com voce prindpali non potest, sicnt in symphoniis aliisP Magiitor. 
Qnoniam, nt dictam est, per qoartanas regiones non iidem tropi reperinntnr, 
diTenoromqne tropomm modi per totnm simnl ire neqneont, ideo in diatessaron 
sjmphonia non per totom vox principalis yoxqoe organalis qnartana regione 
consentiunt. Dtacipulus, Yellem qnoqne dinosoere, qnomodo per qnartana loca 
troporam sit genns dissimile P Magitter, Facile id senties ; sive enim nno tono 
altins tiansponator, sen quarto loco inferins, modns diversi tropi aperto anditu 
fit disoemibilis. Canatnr ad infra scriptnm modnm : — 




Isf' ' '^ 



3a: 



^ 



plane, tonnm antentnm protam in antentnm dentemm 
haae tnospositione tnndre.* Sekolia SnehMadia. 



58 



METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 




rj rj 



-G- 



Z2: 



ex hoc nunc et um 



■zj- 



rj rj 



- qDA in sae - en - lorn. 



:^ 



^^ gy "^y- 



32: 



o p 



ex hoc niino et ni - que in me - en - Ivm. 



fi 



«y c/ 



THB FOUBTH^ C0MP08ITB. 

Vox organMs doubled aifh»9v9 above, (SekoUa BndUHadie,) 

^^ ^^'"^ ^^ fj €^ rj rj cj cj rjt fj rj ^ ^^ i 




Koe qui Ti - vi - moi be-ne-di-d- mas Do • mi -niim 
Vox prindpalie. 



1^ o '^^Q ^ in rj ra f J rj rj ra ra— gr 



ZZ 



Koe qni vi - vi - mns he-ne-di-d- mns Do • mi-nnm 
Voxorganalie. 



M 



I 



zaz 



<nr:ig3gjejrjejejeir3 



^ CI 



Noe qui Ti - vi -mm he-ne-di-d- moi Do - mi -niun 



ir^ rj -TT 



" ^^ O fa 




ex hoc nnnc et oi - que in see - ca - Inm. 



g p "cr 



22: 



•p- 



ra p 




ex hoc none et oi - que in see - en - Inm. 



P rj ZCL 



ZZ 



g rj rj f ^ 



^ 



ex hoc none et os - qne in sae - ca - lam. 

The following example is especially interesting^ since it con- 
tains^ if the notes given are correct, an alteration not only in the 
vox organalis, but in the reduplication of the principalis also : — 

* These four notes are B|^ in Qerbert, bat it seems more probable that C w»s 
intended, as in the other examples. The printing of these spedmens in Geibert is 
often fiur from correct. 



0R6ANUM OR DIAPHONY 



59 



$ 



THE FOURTH^ COMPOSITE. 

Vox prtne^paUi, {Seholia Bnehiriadit) 



tc 



:aL 



ggjragjgjoggjrjr^ 



I 



KoA qni yi - yi - mns be-ne-di-d- mns Do - mi - num 
VooB organaliB, 



r 



■^ 



rjo: 



-0 — 9- 



■« — 9 — ^- 




9 — 9 — & — ei Q 
Kos qni vi - yi - mns be-ne-di-d- mns Do - mi - nnm 



Vox prindpaXiB doubled aifk$9ve hdow. 



h rj''^^^ rj ni 



o gj ra ri rj. o o e z 



231 



Nos qni yi - yi - mns be-ne-di-ci- mns Do - mi -nnm 



n 


rr- 


ea 






^; 




, 






H 


ez 


hoc 


nnnc 


efc 


ns - 


a 

qne 


in 


Bfte 


- en 


- Inm. 


1 


1 


1 


o ^ ^ — 1 


ex 


hoe 


nnne 


et 


ns - 


qne 


in 


sae 


- en 


. lam. 
























fa 


ra 




-^- 


O 


CI 







ex hoe mme et ns - qne in sae - en 



Inm. 



THE FOURTH^ COMPOSITE. 

Voxprtne^Kii$dimblod0itke9ve. (SehoUa EneMriadii.) 



^^ rJ 



$ 



/■J rj rj rj rj rj rj fj rj gj 



Nos qni yi - yi - mns be-ne-di-d- mns Do • mi -nnm 
Vox orgemaii9 doubled ai the 8r«. ^___ 



€9 ^ ^ G g» 



-& — &- 



-^ — « — & — G ' CJ 




Nos qni yi - yi - mns be-ne-di-d- mns Do - mi-num 
Vox prindpalie, ^ 



^ 



- rj rj rj ri fj n ri fJ^Z Z 



Nos qni yi - yi-mns be - ne - di - d - mns Do - mi-nnm 
VoxofgomaHe, 




Nos qni yi - yi - mns be-ne-di-d- mns Do • mi-nnm 



^ Thns in Gerbeit. It is of eonne possible that this is a mistake, and that the 
pMBSge shonld repeat the upper jn^nc^poKs exactly. 



6o METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



-_j ..... -T, 


#^'— 


-n- 








• 




K 






II 


rj 




Q 








■^ 




|] 


if- 

n 


ex 


hoc 


nunc 


6t 


us - 


que 


in 


see 


- en 


- Inm. 


V L 


fL h 


f m ^ 


isw . ^ ^^ ^ ^ 


•7 
1 o 


ex 


hoc 


nnno 


et 


OS • 


que 


in 


see 


. on 


. lain. 


y y I II 


ftrtSr^" 




^3 


— rr 














N 




ex 


hoc 


nunc 


et 


OS - 


a 

que 


in 


see 


. on 


- lum. 


V V 1 


i5_ it It 


■ fh f fh " 


\s]) vw ^^ ^ — ^^ ^ 


if U 


ex 


hoc 


nunc 


et 


Of . 


que 


in 


see 


- en 


. lorn. 



The date at which the free kind of Oiganum was first 
developed from the strict is of course unknown, but its 
method, arising as it does out of inconveniences due entirely 



^ It hM. hitherto heen generally supposed that the £ree Oiguiuni was entirely 
confined to the simple or two-vdoed form, and that the treatment of the composite 
forms was strictly parallel ; even M. Gevaert, in the chapter upon Oiganum and 
Diaphony included as an appendix in his MAopie Antique, <f-c., 1895 (in which he 
also attempts to assign a different signification to each of these terms), seems to 
countenance the notion in Ids definitions : — < OBgAKUic p ropre me nt dii, une harmonie 
d deux voix, composie cPitUervaUes timuUaniis diven; la DlAFHOmB a deux tnis ou 
quatre voix fomUe d^une stiCMSsioti de cofuananees idenHquea,* The origin of this 
curious error is prohahly to he found in M. de Ckmssemaker's Memcire mtr Suebdld, 
Paris, 1841, in which he has wrongly translated the examples just given ahove 
in the text, exhibiting them as sIricQy parailel thrwghout. Neither the examples 
themselves as given in the ori^nal treatise, nor the old writer's careful description 
of which they are illustrations, present any difficulty whatever; we can therefore 
only suppose that in dealing with this part of the subject, M. de Gonssemaker, 
having read his author with less attention than usual, assumed that the parallelism 
of the Organum of the Octave and Fifth, which ii in fact strict, was continued in 
that of the Fourth, and that he thus wrote mechanically, without reference to the 
text of the Scholia, examples which he unfortunately declares to be those actuaUy 
given as illustrations in that work. These misleading examples of the Memoire 
mtr Hudbald were reproduced without alteration by M. de Gonssemaker in his 
HudKUd H see TraiUe, Psris, 1845 (P), and again in his very important Hietoire 
de VSatmumie au Moyen Affe, Ptois, 185 a, which has ever since been universallj 
accepted, and upon the whole with good reason, as the highest authority upon its 
subject. 



ORGANUM OR DIAPHONY 6i 

to the nature of the scale, may very well be of almost equal 
age with that of the purely parallel movement. Indeed^ if the 
difficult passage so often quoted from the Divisio Naturae of 
Scotus Erigena^ can be supposed to throw light upon the 
subject, it would seem that the free Organum of the Fourth 
may already have been in existence about the middle of the 
ninth century, that is to say, about one hundred and fifty 
years before the probable date of the Enchiriadis; for the 
writer's description of the alternate separation and coming 
together of the voices quite admits of application to this 
method. Apart from this doubtful passage, however, there 
seems to be no actual reference to the free Organum imtil 
the period at which we have now arrived, when it was described 
as a part of the general account of Organum in the treatises 
which have just been considered. 

Two other works of this date ought to be mentioned — a 
MS. now in the Cathedral Library at Cologne'^ and another 
which in some MSS. of the Enchiriadis — ^that of Paris for 
instance — takes the place of the chapters xiii. to xviii. which 
were printed in the editions of Gerbert and de C!ous8emaker^. 
In these works the free Oi^num of the Fourth is chiefly 
discussed, and by the author of the Paris MS. the organizing 
of the Fifth is not allowed; in most respects^ however^ they 
conform so closely to the treatises which we have examined 
that it has not been thought necessary to describe them. 

The next account which we possess of the methods of 
Oif^num or Diaphony is contained in the Micrologus of 
Guido of Arezzo, written about one hundred years later than 
the Scholia Enchiriadis, during the first half, that is to say^ 

* Otgudeam melos ex divenis qimUtatibiM et qnaatitatibiis ocmflcitar dnm 
▼tritim Mpumtiiiiqae sentiaiitar Tooet longe a ie diicrepuitibiis inteniionif et 
lemiasionii propoitiooibcis fegregatae dam Tero libi inyioem ooaptaator •ecundiiiii 
oertefl xmticnmbUeiqiie artu mnsicafe regnlM per ningnloe tropoe natimlem qnandam 
dnloedineni reddentibm. 

' See HucbaU^a SeMt mtd umckU 8ekr\/im, dc, bj Hans MfiUer, 1884. 

■ Qmsm. 8cripL iL 74. 



6a METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

of the eleventh century. In the system described in this work 
no very great progress beyond the former one is apparent. 
We may note, for instance, that the old strict forms of com- 
posite Diaphony were evidently still held in some esteem, for 
Guido mentions three as in use in his time, and these appear 
from his description and from a single example to be the well- 
known forms of the strict Diaphony of Diatessaron for three 
voices; moreover, it would seem that musicians were not 
confined to these three forms, or at all events not in theory, 
for Guido adds that the reduplications of the simple Diaphony 
may in all cases be carried out to the full extent of the 
possibilities of the material^. 

But although the strict Diaphony was still at this time in 
use, it is dear that both by Guido and by others it was 
considered as antiquated, and that the free kind was altogether 
preferred. This preference marks the advance, real though 
smaU, which had been made during the century which had 
elapsed since the time of Otger ; for while formerly musicians 
had perceived in the freedom of Diaphony only the advantages 
for the sake of which it had been invented, means, that is to 
say, of avoiding certain inconsonances and inconveniences, they 
were now inclined to see in it distinct intrinsic merits, and 
definitely preferred it for its own sake'; so that its rules were 
now no longer merely sufficient for the avoidance of the Tritone 
or of the parallelism of two different modes, but were also, 
though very tentatively, directed towards the production of 
a series of combined sounds, not necessarily concords, of which 
the ear might approve and of which apparently it was to be 
the principal judge. 

With respect to the number of voices employed at this time 
in the newer or free kind of Diaphony, it may be said that 



* ' Potes et cantmn cam orgaao et orguiam enm cuita, qaantam libnerit, dnpli- 
care per diapuon; abicamqae enim eins oonooidia faeiit, dicta lymphonUram 
aptatio non oesnbit.* MierotoguSf cap. xviii. 

' ' Superior nempe dUplioiiiae modiu doroB eat, noeter TBro moUia.' Ibid. 



ORGANUM OR DIAPHONY 63 

although the very concise du'ections given by Guido refer 
entirely to the conduct of the organal voice^ and the examples 
are in two parts only^ nothing prevents the supposition that 
the doubling of parts at the octave was practised m this as 
well as in the strict or parallel form ; Guido nowhere forbids 
ity and indeed the manner^ for instance^ in which he passes 
from the discussion of the strict Diaphony to consider the 
freer kind seems almost to imply that the two were by no 
means totally distinct. ^Having now/ he says in effect, 
'sufficiently explained the duplication of the voices, we may 
treat more particularly of our method of deaUng with the 
lower (or organal) voice ^/ Moreover, we have already seen 
that the practice of doubling the parts in free Diaphony was 
apparently common in the time of Otger, and it is difficult 
to suppose that a method which had been firmly established 
one hundred years previously, a method based upon existing 
principles and at the same time in no way opposed to the 
natural progress and development of the art, should have 
been discontinued in the time of Guido. 

Passing however from this point, which is perhaps not very 
important, we may go on to consider the method of treating 
the organal voice which is given in the Micrologus. 

The sjrmphony of the Fourth is still the foundation of the 
free Diaphony, and it now moreover constitutes the extreme 
limit of separation between the voices^, for the perfect fifth 
which we have seen in the older music is no longer allowed. 
The remaining intervals, both those which were used and those 
which were nq^lected, are the same as before, but a change 

1 'Ciiin itaqve iam ntis ▼ocmn paiefbcta ait dnpliostio, graTem a oanente 
aiieoeiitiim, mora quo noa Qtimur, ezplioemna.' MiorUoguM, cap. xriii. The 
expraaaioii 'more quo wm atimar/ and alao another already qaotod, *notUr tbto 
moUia/ may refer dther to the modem at oppoaed to the ancient practioei or 
to the Italian aa diatingmshed from the Korthem or Frankish methoda of 
organising. 

' 'Cam plna diatenanm leiuigi non liceat, opna eat, com ploa m cantor 
iatenderit, anbieoator aacendat^ nt Tidelicet C aequatur J*, ot D aequatnr Q, et 
B aequatur a^ et reliqna.' Micnf/oguM, ch>* T^m, 



64 METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 

of considerable importance in the point of view from which 
they are to be considered has taken place; for whereas 
formerly they were unnamed and regarded as chance juxta- 
positions of the voices due to the conduct of the lower voice 
in obedience to a certain rule, they are now seen in their 
true character and receive their proper appellations; their 
points of difference moreover are studied, and they become 
to some extent the subject of choice^. 

Neverdieless the actual existence of these intervals is still 
due, as before, to the observance by the lower voice of that 
rule of practice which forbids its descent below a certain 
note of the tetrachord governing the melody or any particular 
section of it which may be in question. It will be remembered 
that the notes indicated by this rule in the time of Otger were 
6 in the upper tetrachord and C in the lower, and that they 
were then the fourth sounds of their respective tetrachords. 
The system of tetrachords which explains this has already been 
shown (p. 53), and an excellent example of the application 
of the rule under the old conditions was. given in the two- 
part composition Rex coeli Domine, where for instance, in the 
concluding sections, se iubeas flagitant is seen as governed 
by the upper tetrachord and variis Uberare malts by the lower, 
the vox organaUa in neither case descending below the fourth 
sound. But the tetrachords implied in Guidons Diaphony 
are arranged in a different manner from those of his pre- 
decessors ; they are conjimct, and their scale begins upon A', 
thus : — 



iS^ ^ M ^ r. ^ - I 



' ' Semitoniam et diapente non admittimus ; tonimi veio et ditonnm (the 
mmjor third) et aemiditonum (the minor third) redpimuB; sed aemiditonam in 
his tnflm&tiiin, diatessaron vero obtinet prindpatam.' Uiarologus, cap. xriii. 

' In Qnido^i time miuiciaDs had returned to the Greek scale, in which the low 
B isnatnral. 



ORGANUM OR DIAPHONY 65 

The lower limit therefore of the organal voice in each 
tetrachord is now the third sounds and the notes are F 
and C^ 

From this it would seem that the risk of a Tritone Fourth 
has now nothing to do with the prohibition of a descent below 
F or C respectively, nor indeed does Guido mention either 
that explanation of the rule or the reason given by the 
author of the Scholia Enchtriadis, the creation, that is to 
8ay« of parallel modes of different character by the use of 
continuous fourths; he puts forward in fact, as we shall 
presently see, another explanation altogether, based upon the 
impossibility of closing in unison in a proper manner if the 
rule be not observed. 

It IB certainly a curious circumstance that the three writers 
who have given reasons for this rule of not passing below 
certain sounds differ entirely from each other in their explana- 
tions of its necessity, and we are tempted to inquire whether 
the rule may not perhaps have been much older than the 
explanations, existing as a tradition of performance, and pre- 
senting to the theorists a phenomenon for which they felt 
themselves boimd to give a musical reason. And in this point 
of view we must not omit a notice of the fact, mentioned by 
M. Gevaert {Milopie Aniiquey Jkc, Appendix) that in the 
tenth century C was the lowest note both of the organ and 
of the cithara. A possible key to the puzzle may perhaps be 
found in this circumstance, but it must be remarked that 
although it might account for the rule as regards C, it will not 
apparentiy help us to understand the frequent avoidance of 
a desctot below G or F. 

Returning, however, to the methods of Guido we find that his 
practical instructions, as a whole, relate partly to the means 
of avoiding this passage of the lower voice below the Tritui or 
third sound, and partiy to the formation of doses. These may 

* ' A trito flnim infLmo sot inflmii proxime labstitato deponi oiguiam nopqiiftm 
licet/ MienloguBf osp. xYiii. 

WOOLORIOOB F 



66 



METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 



perhaps best be shown in his own examples of their application 
as follows : — 




-^ — d- 



|., | " ^ ri ,, rj g , f . r ,^ ^ 



zz 



M 



Vie - tor a - Men - dit ooe - Us iin - de de - Men - det. 




w==^ 



r^ rj 



-& — Gh 



^ ^ — r^ ^^ ^-i f-» 



In this example, in Mode VIII, the melody, ranging almost 
entirely above the final, 6, is governed by the tetrachord to 
which G belongs, and the organal voice is careful not to 
descend below the third sound of that tetrachord, F. We may 
also note that in the occursus, or coming tc^ether of the 
parts at the end, the unisons upon the two closing notes of 
the melody (which are also apparent in several sections of the 
former example Rex coeli Domine), are disguised by delaying 
the passage of the lower voice ^« In the following example, 
however, which is in Mode IV, the older method is adopted. 



M 



T oTr 



rj Q— gj i 



-^> — ^ 



is: 



^g ^^^rr^ 



X3: 



Ho -mo e-nt in le-m-sa- lem. le - m - sa - lem. 



m 



gjQrjrjrarjraQ 



3a: 



^3Z=l=t 



za: 



The variant is given by Guido in order to show the pleasant 
effect of coming to the unison by way of a major third between 
the voices*. 

An important example is a Diaphony upon the antiphon for 
the office of St. Agnes, in Mode I : — 



^ 'Cnm ooconiiB At tono, dintinns fit tenor finis, nt ei purtim tnlMeqnatnr, et 
partim concinator.' Miarologus^ cap. xviii. 

* < Ecoe dirtinctio in dentero E, in qua ditoni occorra*, vel simplez yel intenniBSUs, 
placet' Ibid. 



OROANUM OR DIAPHONY 



67 




m-&-^ 



rrj rs 



Q Q ^^ g-g-g^ 



-^ 



TJl 



•^ 



Q u— c£ 



Ip - si 



w>-li Ber-vofL--- dem 




m 



2C5 



jd: 



g» Q 



-^9 — 9 — 9 — ^- 



32 



^ 



ZZ 



32: 



a 



Ip-d me to-ta de-vo-ti-o-zie com - mit - to. 



m 




rj rj ["j r 



SC 



q g gj ea &r 



-f© 



n i-t 



-i&- 



In Guido's comment upon the first section of this example 
he gives his reason for refusing to descend below the TrituB C. 
He says that when the melody falls to C^ a close in which the 
lower voice should move upwards to that note is not possible^ 
because the occursus cannot proceed by way either of a tone 
or major third with the upper voice, but only by the semitone 
or minor third, which are not allowed \ His difficulty may be 
illustrated thus : — 




zc 



« 



■XBBL 



-Q- 



ZC 




Hinor third 
(not allowed). 



t 
Semitone 
(not allowed). 



Guido's reasons would seem to require further explanation. 
It is sufficiently clear, however, that for him it is the B which 
creates the necessity for the rule, and we must suppose, since 
no other objection to this note from Guido's point of view is 
obvious, that the real cause of its imsuitability lay in its 
'leading' quality. This, however, Guido does not say, nor 



^ ' Eooe flnii distinctionis in trito C, a quo non deponimns organnm, qnia non 
faabet tab le tonnm vel ditonnm, qiiibos fit oocnnnsy sed habet semiditonmn, per 
qnem non fit oocnmis.' lf»cn}2o^itf, cap. xviii. 

' OeeoTfiiB tono melius fit, ditono non adeo, semiditonoqae nnnqnam/ Ibid. 

F 2 



68 METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 

does he apply his objection to the corresponding note E in the 
tetrachord next above^ which renders the occursu$ from below 
upon F equally impossible. 

This kind of omission, perhaps not always unintentional, is 
rather characteristic of Guidons comments upon his illustra- 
tions. Witii respect, for instance, to the second and third 
sections of the example which we are now examining, we may 
perhaps suppose that the manner in which the final notes are 
accompanied is due to the fact that the closes are of a light 
and passing character ; but we receive no information on this 
point from Guido ; he merely indicates the fact that the lower 
voice moves chiefly in fourths, and that the parts do not come 
together. 'The Diaphony of Diatessaron,' he says, 'is here 
more pleasing than the occursus.^ With respect to the last 
section no difficulty arises, and we are content to be told to 
notice the dose upon the final of the mode, and the satisfactory 
manner in which the occursu$ is conducted by the interval of 
a tone between the voices. 

The examples which remain to be noticed refer more 
especially to exceptions or licenses. In the first, in Mode I, 
we may observe an instance of the forbidden descent of the 
organal voice below the Tritus C. No reason is given or 
excuse offered, but Guido points out that the voice after this 
escapade to A returns at once to C in order to secure a proper 
position in the approaching occursu9. 



m- 




-^h- 




s^ 








— © — G r3- 





y^ 


-tj— 






— ^ 


Q/-tf? 




c^"^"^ 


a ^ 






Ve 


-ni 


«d 


do-oen 


- dam 


DOS 


Ti - 


am pro-den - ti - 


ae 


r/%^f 1 


l^ 










— b-< 




t-i 




-OH 












— M 




— M 




^^^ 



The timely arrival of the organal voice upon the note which 
is to form the lower member of the occursu$ is also seen in the 
following example, in Mode VI ; but a more striking feature 



ORGANUM OR DIAPHONY 



69 



of this close is the maintenance of the organal voice upon the 
Tritus F, while the melody in its long concluding flourish 
touches the corresponding note in the lower tetrachord, 
Tritus C. 




; o p<=» <g :^=g2 .Q o fj ^ rj 



-g»-rx 



>-a-gi g 



:^iE 



i 



Sex - ta ho - n ae-dlt ta-perpa-te-iim < 

' gj Q^ ' * '^ ■' rj Qrj r J Q «^ O r J rj ra ^. _^__^ 



A more remarkable instance of this last device^ in which 
the Organum is held throughout upon the Tritus F^ while the 
plagal melody pursues its course both above and below and * 
finally ends in the lower tetrachord upon the Tritus C, is next 
given. From Guidons comment upon it, joined to some pre- 
vious remarks, we gather that the melody in such cases was 
to be sung very quickly, and that no pause suggestive of a 
melodic close was to be made until the final occursus^. 






Sex - ta 



ho - n ae 



dit tn-per pn-te-um . . . . 



_; O H g O Q H Q O - tt Q Q <5K Q Q 




These last two examples are extremely interesting, and may 
possibly present to us the actual contemporary method of 
organizing the more florid figures of ecclesiastical melody. 

Guido's final example, which he describes as being in 
Mode VI, illustrates a method of closing suitably from below 
upon the upper C, by the use of the tetrachord synemmendn, 

1 ' Supe aotem cum inf erioict trito yoom cantor admiierit, orgMium iiupennnii 
tftnemm in trito; tanc yero opw est nt in inferioribns distinctionem cantor non 
tmaatf eed diieorrentihiis com oeleritato Tocihos praestolanti trito ledenndo sob- 
Teniat» et ninm et illini facta in tnperiorihas diitinctione rapellat' UienloguSf 
tap, xviU. 



70 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

giving Bb in the lower voice; his illustration^ therefore, is 
written in the upper octave, to which in the Greek scale the 
alternative Bb belongs, instead of in the lower, as is usual with 
him. 




rj rj g > €»' ^ ' ^ €^'^%ri €9 ^g - 



Ve-ni-te a---do--ve- mns. 




Guidons examples, and his comments upon them, have here 
been exhibited at some length, in order to establish, as clearly 
as may be, the truth of the statement made above, namely, that 
the free Diaphony was in the beginning of the eleventh century 
already preferred for its own sake, and that the ear was now 
in fact often the real judge of its success. And this we may 
gather not only from the character of the examples themselves, 
but also from the nature of such rules as are given ; for these 
are chiefly practical, and, unUke the rules of the strict 
Diaphony which depended upon the old established concords, 
are based upon no apparent theoretical principle. The ex- 
planations of them which are attempted are generally vague 
and obscure, and even when definite seldom convince us of the 
necessity of the course prescribed. They are in fact, so far as 
we can see, the rules of a practitioner, who can only success- 
fully support them by an appeal to custom, and to the general 
feeling among men of experience that in given circumstances 
certain combinations will sound better than certain others. 

Regarded in this point of view, Guido's examples and com- 
ments would seem to reveal a period of considerable musical 
activity of the most promising character, and it might well 
be supposed that some further manifestation of the free system 
displayed in the Micrologus—& system apparently so much in 
sympathy with the beautiful florid ecclesiastical melody — would 



ORQANUM OR DI APHONY 71 

soon have become evident; it might also even be conceived as 
possible that by means of successive improvements in this 
system the contrapuntal music of later times might suitably 
have been developed. But, as a matter of fact, it would 
appear that the actual course of events was by no means such 
as we might have expected ; for already in the works of the 
writers upon Organum who come immediately after Guido 
no trace of either of the systems exhibited by him is to be 
found ; they disappear in fact entirely, and the system which 
takes their place is now based upon a principle unrecognized 
by Guido, and presents a totally new appearance. 

This circumstance, which comes upon us with the force of 
a surprise, is at first sight somewhat difficult of explanation. 
Tet in the point of view from which we regard the art of 
Music we should assume, as a probable reason for this 
abandonment of Guidons systems, that the path of actual 
progress did not lie in the direction which they indicate; 
and this assumption, which is in accordance with all that we 
know of the history of art of all kinds, will in fact be found 
to be sufficiently justified if we shortly examine the nature 
of the change which took place and of the principles which 
were involved in it. 

Hitherto we have regarded the two systems of Organum or 
Diaphony, the strict and the free, chiefly from the point of 
view of the intervals employed ; and we have seen that, while 
the strict sort was based entirely upon the traditional concords, 
the freer kind admitted sounds which formerly had been held 
to be impossible, because discordant. We have seen, more- 
over, that in the strict Organum the voices were confined in 
each composition to one kind of concord, which was sung 
under the melody and moved with it continuously throughout, 
and that in the free sort the introduction of the discordant 
sounds among the concords created new and various intervals 
between the voices. But we have now to take notice of the 
fact, with respect to the free Diaphony, that in addition to 



72 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

the novelty of the mutual situations caused by the hitherto 
untried intervals, a new relation of another kind was estab- 
lished between, the parts; for whereas in the older method 
their only possible progression was parallel^ the newer 
method gave rise to an oblique movement^ and even in one 
case^ where the occtsrsus was made by a major third, to a 
contrary movement. Of these two movements the oblique^ 
arising as it does out of the characteristic rule of not passing 
below certain sounds, is in fact, though stiU mingled with 
the parallel, a characteristic feature of the free Diaphony, 
and may be said to be firmly established in that sjnrt^em; 
the contrary movement, on the other hand^ is foreign to the 
systems which we have already examined, and is indeed rather 
discouraged than otherwise by Guido, who^ even when he 
admits it, recommends another way of closing as preferable. 

The sudden appearance therefore of the new sjrstem which 
immediately succeeded that of Guido, and in which^ as we 
shall see, the influence of the parallel and oblique movements 
is reduced to a minimum and the contrary movement is 
apparent as the leading principle and characteristic feature^ 
is indicative of a change of the highest importance in musical 
thought^ and marks the beginning of an entirely new view of 
the possibilities of the material of part music ; a view, in fact, 
not suggested by either of the systems displayed by Guido^ 
and revealing principles which his methods of composition 
could not from the nature of the case supply. Moreover^ since 
we have seen that the path of progress in Polyphony must be 
considered to lie along that line which tends towards the 
preservation of a balance between the individual element or 
element of variety^ and the collective element or element of 
unity, we must regard the change of system as entirely bene- 
ficial to the art of symphonious singing, because completely 
destructive of the crushing domination of the collective element 
as seen in the strict method of oiganizing. For the oblique 
movement of the free Diaphony, though it established the 



ORGANUM OR DIAPHONY 73 

recognition of the individual element in Polyphony and gave 
rise to a certain measure of progress, was still but an offshoot 
of the continuous parallelism of ancient times, and is therefore 
expressive only of a partial independence insufficient for the 
full development of music; in the principle of the contrary 
movement, on the other hand, and in the unfettered variety of 
the vocal progressions to which it gives rise, we recognize the 
declaration of individual freedom in the largest measure com- 
patible with respect for the general law. Hence its imme- 
diate triumph and supersession of the former system, and 
its assumption of an authority which was thenceforward 
complete. 

With the death of Guido, therefore, about 1050, and the 
advent of the new principle of the contrary movement, the 
first period of part music, the period of Organum or Diaphony, 
may be said in fact to be closed. Its chief task, the first 
liberation of the composition from the bonds of the strict 
continuous consonance of one kind inherited from the Greeks, 
had been accomplished, and the cultivation and development 
of the more fruitful elements which had been evolved in the 
course of the work were now to be undertaken, upon fresh 
methods, by the succeeding generations. 



CHAPTER V 

THE NEW ORQANUM AND THE TRANSITION TO 

MEASURED MUSIC 

Although we may no doubt safely conclude, with respect 
to the original sources of the new Organum, that it was 
derived from the free species of the Fourth which was con- 
sidered in our last chapter, the complete process by which 
the actual transition was effected is not only unknown to us, 
but is also at first sight somewhat difficult to imagine. The 
change was in fact very considerable, partly on account of the 
wide difference of principle which, as we have akeady seen, 
exists between the old and the new kinds of vocal progression, 
and partly from the absolute novelty of the symphonious rela- 
tion now established between the voices; for, as we shall 
presently see, the combination of dissonant intervals with con- 
sonance of one kind, which constituted the characteristic and 
important feature of the older free Oi^num, entirely dis- 
appears in the new system, and gives place to a carefully 
varied mixture of all the traditional concords. Considered 
as a whole, therefore, no method could well be more different 
from another than the method of the new system from that 
of the older one, and we must deplore the absence of the few 
links in the chain of description and example which are needed 
to make clear to us the intermediate phases of so remarkable 
a development. 



THE NEW ORGANUM 75 

Our inability to trace the actual process of transition from 
the old to the new Oi^ganum is not due, as might perhaps be 
supposed, to the absence of musical treatises during the tran- 
sitional period, but rather to a complete silence with respect 
to this branch of the subject. Bemo, for instance, Aribo 
Scholasticus, and William of Hirschau, the writers upon music 
who immediately succeeded Guido, all agree in the omission of 
any account of the methods of Organum, as if indeed it formed 
in their opinion no true part of music at all. 

The reason for this momentary reaction, for such it would 
seem to be, from the warm interest in the subject which is 
evident in Guido, is not very apparent; but whatever the 
reason may have been, the silence of these writers deprives 
us of the assistance which we have been accustomed hitherto 
to receive in a complete description of contemporary methods 
and a full explanation of their purpose. Indeed, we should be 
left in entire ignorance with respect to the development of 
symphonious singing between the date of Guido's death and 
the beginning of the twelfth century, were it not that we are 
fortunately able to turn to a few specimens of the work of that 
period, composed with a view to practice and quite apart from 
theory, from which we may learn something. 

Of these the most important perhaps for the history of 
Organum are contained in an English MS. known as the 
Winchester Troper, now in the library of Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge, and dating probably from 1080 at the 
latest, in which some of the pieces — certain kyries, alleluias, 
and other portions of the divine service, are shown in two parts. 
Unfortunately the music is noted in neumes, without stave or 
clef, a circumstance which renders an exact translation in 
full impossible ; but the MS. is useful notwithstanding for our 
present purpose, since the parallel, oblique, and contrary 
movements can all be perfectly discerned in it, in situa- 
tions similar to those which they might occupy in the free 
Organum of the Fourth, as we have seen it in the EnchiriadiB 



76 METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 

and the Scholia. The chief interest, however, of the MS. 
resides in certain passages of contrary movement, appearing 
not at the closes, as had been usual hitherto, but in the 
course of the sentences, and displa)ring a more elaborate and 
extended form than that of the old oceursui^ The most dis- 
tinct of these, perhaps, is contained in a composition with 
Greek text, beginning 'Alleluya ymera agias,' wh^re the two 
first syllables of the word ' ethnike * are treated in the following 
manner :^- 



Vox prindpaUs, 




^ ^ M 



eth • - ni 
VoxwrffontOU. 



Q <g Q rj ^ rj fj 



< P ^ ' ^ ^^ Ac 



eth • - ni 



The actual position of the organal passage in the scale 
cannot at present be determined, and the notes have therefore 
been shown without a clef; there can be no doubt, however, 
with respect to the fact of contrary movement of a new 
kind. 

It is to be hoped that notwithstanding the difficulties which 
stand in the way of translation, the exact nature of the musical 
contents of this valuable MS. may in the course of time 
become more clear to us ; and in that case it is not impossible 
that, among other results, we may be able to establish, through 
the Troper, some connexion between the Oiganum which 
we have already seen and another very remarkable kind, 
apparently quite independent of rule, which is exemplified 
in the remaining specimens of the practical work of this 
period to which reference has been made, and from which 
probably the method afterwards called discant, and therefore 
the whole of polyphonic music, was subsequently derived. 
But the consideration of these questions must be postponed 



THE NEW ORGANUM 77 

for the present^ and our attention must be given to the new 
development of the learned Organum which appears in the 
beginning of the twelfth century. 

The earliest known expositions of the new Oi^anum are 
contained in the Murica of Johannes Cotto, written about the 
year iioo^ and an anonymous treatise of similar date^ Ad 
Organum Faciendum^ now in the Ambrosian Library at 
Milan. 

The first of these works is a treatise of the usual learned 
and dignified kind, chiefly devoted to the consideration of music 
from the point of view of the single voice, and remarkable for 
its dissertations upon notation and upon the supposed corruption 
of the ecclesiastical melodies. The author, following perhaps 
in this respect the example of Guido, devotes only one short 
chapter to the subject of organizing, which it must be said he 
treats in a somewhat dry and perfunctory manner, enunciating 
its rules very briefly and giving no examples. Nevertheless 
the information which he affords is of great importance. The 
Organum, we find, is now constructed entirely of consonances, 
and the arrangement of these is decided chiefly by the various 
kinds of progression adopted by the voices^. Varieties of 
progression therefore form the principal means of the new 
Organum and are the chief subject of the author's instruc- 
tions. From these we learn that, although the similar move- 
ment of the voices is by no means forbidden, a contrary 
progression is upon the whole preferred'; while crossing of the 
parts also is not only allowed, but indeed appears even as 
a characteristic feature of the current system. This latter 
fact is evident not only from a passage contained in Cotto's 
definition of Oiganum already quoted at p. 48 (note), of the 



* 'Orgumm per oonsouiitiM iUty ipMium uttem oonstitatioiiM per rnotns 
voeom TArienfcar.' Cbtttmii Jfuaioa, e^). zxiii. 

* ' Ea (dUphonub) diveivi ^Yerse ntantiir. OMtemm hie fMillimns eiat usus 
esty n motaam TvietM diligenter oonnderetnr; ut ubi in recta modnlatione ert 
tlemtio^ ibi in organiea flat depontio^ et 6 oonveno.* Ibid. 



78 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

present work — aliero rectam modulatianem ienente, alter per 
alienoe eonoe apie drcneai — but alao from his rules for closings 
which direct that if the principal voice comes to a pause among 
the grave sounds the oiganal voice must end at the octave 
above^ if the pause be among the acute sounds the oiganal 
voice must descend to the octave below, while at a dose 
upon or near meee the oiganal voice must come to the same 
part of the scale and end in unison^; it is clear, therefore, 
that in certain given circumstances a direct inversion of the 
original relation of the voices must take place. Finally, it may 
be said that this author allows the use of two or even three 
notes as the equivalent of the single note of plainsong, in 
place of the aimplem motus or usual note under note pro- 
gression. He probably also intends to sanction the use of 
two or three notes of the plainsong against one of organum, 
a practice which may sometimes be observed in Ouido's 
examples \ 

But if Cotto, evidently a member of the literary class to 
which Bemo, Aribo, and William of Hirschau belonged, 
describes the contemporary Organum imperfectly and in a 
grudging spirit which is well displayed in his ckraing words 
— Et de diaphonia iatud tantiUum nos dixieee eufftciai — ^the 
anonjrmous writer of the treatise in the Ambrosian Library, 
on the other hand, devotes the whole of his work to the subject 
of the new practice, and is moreover enthusiastic and bold 
even to rashness in his assertion of its merits, exalting the 
Oiganum indeed in dignity and importance far above the 



' 'Providendom qnoqne est orgBniz&nti, nt n recta modnlalao in graTibns 
moram feoerit, ipee in acatU oanendo per diapawm ooeorrat; fin vero in 
acatii, ipee in gravilms per diapason conoordiam fadat : cantoi antem in mese 
vel circa meie paneationes fadenti in eadem voce respondeat.' Oottoniia Uutiea, 
cap. xxlii. 

* ' Animadvertere etiam debes, qnod qnamyis ego in simplidbos motibus 
simplex organnm posuerim^ cailibet tamen organizanti simplices motos dn» 
plicare vel triplicare, vel qnovis modo oompetenter conglobare si Tolnerit licet.' 
Ibid. 



THE NEW ORGANUM 



79 



plainaong^; his opinion^ in fact^ is so entirely opposed to 
the ecclesiastical view, and the possibility of its maintenance 
by a clerical advocate seems so remote^ that we may 
perhaps suppose the author of the treatise to have been 
a layman. 

The principal feature of the work is a classification of the 
various elements of the current practice^ reduced to five modes, 
which are shortly described by the author. Examples also are 
given, in which it may be noticed that the vow principa1i9 is 
now below the vox organalis, instead of above as formerly, and 
that the theme taken by the lower voice is the same in all the 
examples. 

The first mode, he sajrs, occurs when the first note of the 
Organum is ' conjunct V (that is to say at the unison or octave 
with the melody), thus : — 




Al . le 



lu 



M 



zz 



zr 



-^- 



-&- 



-^ 



JZL 



:a: 



zr 



8 



The second mode occurs when the first note is ^ disjunct V 



*■ The donng woidB of tliU trattise, which are in Yene, may be oompued with 
thoee of Gdtto's chapter on Diaphony just given above in the text : — 



' Oi^uram aoqnirit totom 

■nmun et inferini. 
Cnrrit valde delectando, 

at milee fortiMimni . 
Frangit voces velnt prinoepe, 

■enior et dominne. 
Qoa de caoea applicando 

lonat mnltom dnlcine. 



Cantu manet nt sabiectiiB» 

praeoedenti gratia ; 
Quia quod praeoedit taatom 

minns qnam leqoentia, 
Ut Boetins praedixit 

ric in dialectica. 
Ergo organum exoedit 

maiori potentia.' 



Cooieemaker, Hitioir^ de tffarmonis au Moym Agt, p. 343. 

' 'Frimns modni organinndi est qnando prima vox oopolatar cum praeoedenti.' 
Ibid., p. 333. ProMotdenB in this MS. signifies the voice which sings the melody. 
' ' Seeondns fit per disionctionem ipeins vocis; nam differentia est coninnotio 

Ibid.9 p. 333. 



8o METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

(that is to say at the fourth or fifth with the melody), 
thus : — 




Z2 ^ ^ ,. fj. 



g — " ^ rj ^^ rj 



—j^ — &— 

Al-le ------ lu---------i- a. 

"" - ^ — r^- ^ Q g? rj ^ 



m 




-yj Q 



The third mode is concerned with the notes which compose 
the body of the music, proceeding in fourths and fifths^, 
thus: — 




bo r. ^^ ^ «^^ rj » 



•&- 



-&- 



Al . le lu i 

^ ..^ Q ^ o ^ * - ^ ^ "^ ^ ra g» 



8 



The statement of the fourth mode is obscure, and its 
example, which might have helped us, has been omitted from 
the MS«. 

The fifth mode arises from the augmentation or diminution 
of the organal notes', thus: — 




rj ^^ rj-^ [yo r^ rj Q rj 



^m 



^°^ 



Al - le In i - 

^ ^ r:, C f r^ G ^^ G r^ G J - J 




32 



8C6844CC64 14C4S4 

^ ' Tertiu modos stunitnr a mediis vocibna, qoae nrataator per diatesaaron si 
Bunt in diapente, et e oonyeno.' CooBflemaker, Hisloim de TEarmowU cm Jfoyen Age, 

P 233. 
* 'Qnaitns fit a diYeno princiino, vel a diYono me^o, non tantnm ab nno 

Bed ab ntroqne.' Ibid., p. 333. 

' ' QuitttnB per mnltiplicationem oppositamm vocnm, augendo vel anferendo.' 

Ibid., p. 333. 



THE NEW ORGANUM 8i 

This classificatioii would seem to be purely arbitrary and 

of no real value whatever, since the pecidiarities here described 

and shown in the examples, though undoubtedly distinct, do 

not command a su£Biciently wide range of influence upon the 

composition as a whole to deserve the name of modes. If, for 

instance, the special direction given by the initial interval to 

the progression of the three or four notes which follow — and 

its influence could seldom extend further — is to constitute 

a mode, then modes might be multiplied to almost any extent, 

and every small form of movement and arrangement of 

intervals might claim to be placed upon the list. It is in 

fact difficult to avoid the conclusion that the author's scheme 

represents merely a strong desire on his part to dignify the 

current practice, for which he expresses so much admiration, 

by exhibiting it in a systematic form similar to that which was 

adopted^ with good reason, in the learned explanations of the 

ecclesiastical plainsong. His failure may be accounted for by 

the fact that no sufficient material for such a scheme as yet 

existed, nor indeed does any such material seem to have 

effectually presented itself to musicians until in comparatively 

modem times, when it was gradually fashioned into the form 

of the five orders of counterpoint ; considered, however, as the 

prototype of this fine analysis of music our author's ineffectual 

scheme is exceedingly interesting. 

Besides this attempt at classification the author puts forward 
a num1)er of rules for practical composition; and from these, 
though they are apparently not exhaustive, it is evident that 
the contemporary organizers already possessed a fairly clear 
notion of the best method of proceeding in view of the ideal 
of this kind of music, which Cotto defines as the production 
of change and variety in the consonances by means of the 
movement of the voices. For there is no doubt that the rules 
are devised quite as much with the object of securing freedom 
and change of movement as in order to create variety of sound. 
We are told, for instance, that if the unison or octave to the 

WOOLDSIDOB G 



8a METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

plainsong are employed as the opening notes of the organal 
voice — the author's ^ First Mode ' — the note next taken should 
be either at the fourth or fifth, but that if on the other hand 
the opening note be at the fourth or fifth — the author's ' Second 
Mode' — it may be followed by the octave; in general how- 
ever, in passages of moderate length, all notes after the first, 
except the final which is usually either in unison or at the 
octave, should be at the fifth or fourth, but in passages of 
greater length the octave and unison may occasionaUy be 
introduced. 

The author supplements these rules by several methodical 
sketches of compositions of which he explains the construction 
note by note; they are of considerable interest, and one of 
them may be given as representative of alL 

' If the melody,^ says the author, ' opens with E followed by 
G the organum begins upon the upper octave and then falls 
to c; then the melody taking aFO the organum replies with 
d a G, and thus both voices come together upon the same note. 
Again the melody proceeds with FGE, and the organum 
starting from c rises through d to effect a conjunction (8^*) 
upon e, and since the melody next rises to G the organum will 
again come to c, and the final close will be in unison upon a. 




'^^ fj g > ,■ rj Q '^^ ^ 



rJ f^ - rj 



8443 1CS8 

^^ Q f^ fJ iri ^-» _, ^-> ^ 



^^ ^^ "_ ^ 6. r^ o f^ .. " '"'^ll 



Ex - em - plum . . . die - - • tae re - L' 

Here again the dicta res, presenting to us as it does the 
shadow rather than the substance of instruction, would seem 
to be of little practical value, but we have to remember th4t 
the frequent repetition of such explanations, applied to a large 
number of examples, might very well create in the mind of the 
student, by the constant direction of attention upon the various 






THE NEW ORGANUM 83 

progressions of the voices^ a clear idea of the course to be 
pursued in all circumstances. 

Nevertheless it must be admitted that the author's text, 
taken as a whole, is the least valuable portion of his work, 
and we willingly turn for a moment to consider the examples 
by themselves^ apart that is to say from the author's use of 
them, and merely as the earliest theoretical specimens of the 
new Organum which we possess. And in this point of view it 
is mteresting to note, in the first place^ that they both illustrate 
and supplement the axioms laid down by Cotto in his treatise. 
It is plain, for instance^ from these examples that while Cottons 
fundamental rule that the Organum should be made with con^ 
sonances varied by the movement of the voices was generally 
observed, considerable latitude was at the same time permitted 
with respect to the degree of variety to be employed. In the 
illustration of the author's so-called Third Mode, for example, 
the parallel movement occurs five times^ similar movement 
twice, and contrary movement twice; in the illustration of the 
so-called Second Mode, on the other hand, the parallel move*- 
ment occurs only once, and similar movement twice, while 
contrary movement is to be found in seven progressions. In 
one or two fragments of /composition included in the treatise, 
but not given expressly as illustrations of the text, the use of 
the contrary movement is seen as still further extended; as 
• for instance in the following specimen, where we may note not 
only that the parallel movement has entirely disappeared, but 
that with the exception of the first three notes^ where the move- 
ment is similar^ and those at the junction of the sections, where 
it 18 oblique, contrary movement is employed throughout : — 



m-i> " ,. 




zaz 


a ^ 





^ ^^ 


^=^^ 


Uoc . .tit 

M: „ ^ '•» 


• • 


TO 


- - . bb 


• 

1 


• - - ter • • 




^ Q 




14 4 


a 


4 


a 4 1 

G 2 


s 


rj ^ Ci- 

8 ft 1 a 


rj ''" ^ 

8 4 1 



84 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

This specimen also affords an interesting example of inter- 
change or crossing of parts^ for it will be remarked that 
throughout the first section the organal voice sings below the 
principal, and returns to its normal position in the second. 
Another kind of interchange is also to be seen in the example 
of the so-called Fifth Mode, where a device corresponding to 
Guido's Organum suspensum is employed; the author, how- 
ever, gives no particulars with respect to it, and though we 
see that it was allowed to the organal voice we are not told 
whether it might be employed, as in Guidons sjrstem, by the 
principal, or whether this was forbidden. The flourish, it will 
be observed, is executed below the principal, and was probably 
sung very quickly, like that below the Organum suspensum. 

In two other respects also we observe the signs of a con* 
siderable latitude in the application of the prevailing rules. 
In the author's treatment of B in the upper voice, for instance, 
we may note that he constantly takes that sound as a fourth to 
F, correcting the discordance by a flat. The rule, of course — 
since the old practice of standing still upon C had been given 
up — was to avoid the tritone by taking B in the upper voice 
only as an octave or fifth to the voice below, mnce the admis- 
sion of B^ in the upper voice must, it was feared, lead 
inevitably to its introduction, for organizing purposes, into 
the lower or principal voice, and thus bring about an ever 
increasing corruption of the plainsong. The author of this 
treatise, however, though he quotes Guido's remarks upon the 
use of Bb, in which the device is treated as inadmissible and 
superfluous^, not only uses the note freely in the upper voice, 
but also, though more sparingly, in the lower. 



^ ' Sed Qregorio non placet 
Patri haec lucivU; 
Et modemi ■apientes 
banc neqae oommemonnt. 



QiiamTxs ergo apnd quoedam 

ipsa fiat vocola, 
Apad multoe tamen iure 

dicitar superflma.' 



Coouemaker, Hittoire de VHarmonU^ <ftc, p. 338. 

Qnido'f remarkB (taken from the Prologne to his Antiphonary) refer of conne 
only to the melody or principal ; bat from his own examplee of Organnm, already 



THE NEW ORGANUM 85 

The second instance of latitude in the observance of rule 
occurs in the closes of the examples of the so-called Modes^ 
where we find that Cottons rule for the final conjunction when 
the principal ends upon or near to Mese is twice obeyed and 
twice neglected, the voices in two cases coming, as enjoined, 
to the unison, but in one case also to the fourth and in the 
other to the fifth. This treatment was probably adopted as 
a part of the general display of the possibilities of the art 
as now constituted, which seems to have been the chief object 
of these examples. 

The most striking feature of this author's exposition of the 
new Organum is probably his construction of so many various 
examples upon one melody. The power to do this was of 
course within the reach of all from the moment at which 
the contrary movement was first devised, but the exhibition 
of the method in this and perhaps similar treatises must have 
been, for many of the contemporary musicians, a revelation 
of unsuspected resources, and of an apparently unlimited field 
for the exercise of invention. For us, on the other hand, the 
author's method of proceeding is not only significant of a great 
advance in the art of music, as the result of the new system 
of organizing by varied concords, but also points out its future 
direction, and alre^y suggests the means by which the 
materials of Polyphony were to be completed; and in fact, 
as we shall see, existing compositions prove that the first actual 
expansion of the polyphonic principle, the addition of a third 
real part to the original two, dates from this period, and that 
the fourth part followed soon after. 

In passing from this treatise a final example of its methods, 
upon a comparatively extended scale, may be given. Being 
more or less complete in itself it affords a better idea of the 

given in this work, we may condnde that he preferred a kind in which care was 
taken to avmd the B|? in the organal voioe aleo. Only onoe does this note appear 
in hi* iUnrtratiottf ; nor is the formnla in which it then occors pat forward as his 
own, or even commended hy him ; invenin %uurpahan is all that he says, — ^you will 
find it mneh nsed. 



86 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



music of the divine worship at this time than could be obtained 
from the fragments hitherto exhibited. It was performed 
either simply in two parts^ or with both voices reduplicated 
at the octave. 

TROPE OR PARAPHRASE OF THE KTRIB. 



(MS. in the Ambrosian Library, Milan.) 



^ 



£k. 



£X. 



^ 



32: 



r^'ri^^rjc ^ ^^ 



rj ,. <P jo-^ 



zc^ 



:ee 



Ciinc-ti-po-tenflge-ni-torDe-iu om-ni-cro-a-tor e - - - - ley-son. 




zz 



ra fa ^j fa 



«»- 



r j F Q Cr x j i ^ ^^ 



zz 



22: 



168514441 168 118 8418 68 



ICE 



:^=EC 



~gr 



zz 



33: 



ri g, rj 



rz: 



3Z 



zz 



■^ 



ice: 



Chris -te De - i splen-dor vir-tns pa-tris-qne so-phi - a e - - - ley-«on. 



zz 



zc 



zz 



IQZZZ 



Q Q 



■^ 



-^- 



zz 



zz 



1441 41 14161168616868 



Q C» ' Q 



ri Q ' ^"^ 



3Z 



.^ 



zz 



x^ 






-^ 



-^ 









zz 



zz 



zz 



Am-bo-mm sa-cmmspi-ra-mennex-ns a-nunvqne e 



ley-son. 



sc 



ZZZZ 



is: 



p gj 



-^ 



zz 



33: 



P<^ CJ 



zz 



:ei: 



Z3 

8 1 4 41 148 14368 616668 41 



That the system here exemplified preserved its theoretical 
authority, at least during the first half of the century which 
followed, seems clear from the evidence of the two treatises 
which are next to be mentioned; for the methods displayed 
in these works, while they reveal certain characteristics 
which may be said to be in advance of anything which we 
have as yet seen, are nevertheless in substantial agreement 



THE NEW ORGANUM 87 

with the doctrine of Cotto and the anonymous author of the 
Milan MS. 

The first of these works is a little summary of the rules 
of composition^ in the old French vernacular^ dating probably 
from the beginning of the twelfth century, which, like the 
treatise last described, has been printed by M. de Coussemaker 
in his Histoire de UHarmonie au Moyen Age^. Compared 
with the works which we have just examined, its chief points 
of difference are the abolition of the interval of the fourth, 
which, as we shall see, is here excluded from the list of 
possible concords, and the satisfactory and practical character 
of the rules for the treatment of the octave and fifth. We 
now no longer find a mere description of the actual move- 
ments of the notes in a given example, but definite instructions 
for the progression of the organal voice — or rather, as this 
author calls it, the discant* — ^in a certain number of cases. 
We are told, for instance, that if the melody begins with 
an upward progression, the first note of discant must be the 
octave to the first note of melody, in order to leave ample 
room for a contrary movement of the discant downwards; 
while on the other hand, if the melody descends, the discant 
will begin upon the fifth, in order that the proper contrary 
movement upwards may not create too great a divergence. 
Then if the melody proceeds upwards one degree the discant 
will fall two from its octave, as shown in the subjoined 
example (a); a rise of two notes in the melody is met by 
a fall of one in the discant (6) ; a rise of three notes in the 
melody obliges the discant to stand still (c) from lack of room 

^ The origiiud of tliis little work ii in the Bibliothbqae Kationale at Fkrii 
where it eziite in the shape of a marginal addition to a thirteenth century 
treatiM — (finda 8. Victor, 813)— of which mention will be made preeently in the 
text. It covert the margins of about two pages, and is written in a hand which, 
though not the same as that of the rest of the MS., is apparently of the same 
date. Its doctrine, however, shows it to be a copy of something much older, and in 
fact a statement of the practice of the period which we are now considering. 

' The change of word here, however, involves no change of idea ; Discant is only 
Diaphony latinised, and Diaphony was of course synonymous with Qiganum. 



88 



METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 



to move (since the fourth^ as has been said, is not allowed 
by this author), and at a rise of four notes in the melody 
the discant is forced to abandon the contrary movement, and 
rises also, moving one note (rf); and in general, when the 
melody continues to rise, and there is no room for the contrary 
progression, parallel fifths are recommended until a descent 
in the melody again admits of free treatment. The same 
principles apply to the discant upon a descending melody, 
in which the voices begin at the interval of a fifth. If the 
melody falls one note the discant rises two (e) ; if the melody 
falls two notes the discant rises one (/); at a fall of three 
notes in the melody the discant stands still upon the fifth (g) ; 
at a fall of four notes the discant descends one note (A), and if 
the melody continues to descend a discant in fifths is again 
recommended as the proper course; but the discanter must 
be careful always to close upon the octave. 



Q 


a. 

1 


b. 


c. 


d. 


«. 


/ 


^ 


A. 










^^ 


^^ ^■^ 


o ^^ 




J-D 1 


L rj ^. 


Kl Q 


a a 










^ ot 


W^> '-M 














1 


i/%/ 
















K^^ 




rj " 






Vf ^ 


1" n 1 




■"^"nrt 










\ 






=-H 



The rules given in the treatise of Ouy, abbot of Chalis,, 
written probably not earlier than the middle of the twelfth 
century, reveal a somewhat richer and more complicated 
method than that which we have just examined, but no change 
in the general principles of music. We may indeed note that 
the fourth, which was banished in the former treatise, here 
appears occasionally, and that the word discant seems to be 
unknown to this author. The rules are twenty-one in number; 
they are exceedingly clear and precise in statement, and pro- 
vide for the conduct of the organal voice in almost all the 
circumstances which could have been likely to arise. The 
various consequences, for instance, of a beginning at the octave 



THE NEW ORGANUM 



89 



with a rising melody^ at the fifth with either a rising or a 
falling melody^ and at the unison with a falling melody, are 
all very fully described, and generally with two alternatives 
for each progression of the plainsong; attempt also is made 
to establish a grammatical method of singing both above and 
below a stationary note. The effect of these rules is displayed 
in the following examples: — 

THE ORGANUM AT THE OCTAVE. 




iq: 



TH 



■TJl 



lOL 



3a: 



zz 



■&- 



lOL 



CI :: 



zz 



-<9- 



T7- 



-^ 



3Z 



xj- 



Mdodff riaing. 




-&- 



ICL 



m 



ZZ 



23=^ 



zz 



3Z 



ZZ 



zz: 



zz 



sc 



zz 



zz 



THE ORGANUM AT THE FIFTH. 



Iti 


Ht-^ 


rnC5=j 


\-^-rr 





r " " 






-.e^ 


T3- 




— 1 


M 


} 

MelodyJ 


1 

c/Hng. 


\ — "- 

JMtdyi 
1 rj 1 




riamff. 


^^ 


« 


1 


V'^ — 1 


fl 


Tl 


iQi? 


^- 


I— 






1 


f— 


— — H 






1 








I 


..u 




-^ 



THE ORGANUM AT THE UNISON. 



ZZ 



la: 



sc 



f=^ 



zz 



zz 



zz 



2Z 



zz 



Mtlod^ faOing, 



M 



Q rj I <g rj » <g 



■^ 



■^ 



-^ 



■^ 



lEC 




ORGANUM ABOVE A STATIONARY NOTE. 



■&- 



.Q- 



ZZ 



• it*.-m fix 



ZZ 



^ 



fj fJ 



T3 f3 



Kl fa 



" " 



ci fa 



90 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



OROANUII BELOW A STATIONARY NOTE. 



ijyj? .. — rn 










fefh ^^ — "^^ 










Vl/ Vl/ 






1 


;7«7 




Q 




^5 «=* 




^ 




FTT^ 


^^ 








— "^^ 1 


^ ^ ^ ^ tTk r^ r^ r^ 






^-^ '-^ 




















1 










1 


1 


^ ^ ^ ^ -^ 












1 












1 












1 



The rules of Guy de Chalis, who livedo as has been said, 
during the latter half of the twelfth century^ may be taken 
probably as representing the perfection of Organum^ considered 
simply as a method of extemporizing a second part upon the 
plainsong, entirely in concords, in equal notes with the plain- 
song, and mainly in contrary movement; but they must not 
be supposed to indicate the limits of music, either in the time 
of their author, or even at a period considerably more remote ; 
they exhibit only the work of theory, the careful improvement 
of the received tradition upon established lines, the operation 
of taste and judgment ; the operation of the creative impulse, 
working independently upon the same tradition, they ignore. 
Yet the creative impulse, already awaking to a sense of the indi- 
vidual freedom contained in the principle of contrary movement, 
had, long before — before the embodiment even of the principle in 
didactic form — produced results of the greatest importance for 
music. And this will be evident in a comparison of the system 
which we have just examined with the examples of practical 
composition which are now to be taken into consideration. 

With the exception of the pieces contained in the Winchester 
Troper, the earliest practical compositions which we possess 
are the specimens of irregular Organum in contrary movement 



THE NEW ORGANUM 91 

which have been already referred to as appearing in MSS. of 
late eleventh and early twelfth century date. This Organum is 
here called irregular^ not only because it conforms neither 
to the old rules of which Guido was the latest exponent, nor 
to the more modem system of Cotto^ but because it appears 
as purely experimental, admitting a large number of in- 
consonant intervals which however are not in any way 
distinguished, as regards the principle governing their use, 
from the consonances. Its immediate source, as has already 
been said, cannot be traced at present; it appears, as a per- 
fectly unforeseen phenomenon, immediately after the time of 
Guido, whose own system reveals no trace either of the principle 
of contrary movement, or of any independent use of dissonance. 
Its application, as we shall see, was extended both to liturgical 
and extra-liturgical compositions; the method therefore was 
probably not, as might be supposed, of purely secular origin, 
but may have been developed, even to a considerable extent, 
within the church. 

One of the earliest examples of this kind of Organum known to 
exist is a little composition, written in an early twelfth century 
hand, interpolated in a Cornish MS. otherwise of the tenth 
century, now in the Bodleian Library (Bodley 572)^. Here 
the difficulty with respect to translation does not arise, for 
the piece is in the simple alphabetic notation, in which the 
first octave of the scale from the lower A upwards is repre- 
sented by the letters which denominate the notes, and the 
second by a simple continuation of the alphabet. The subject 



' The date (tenth oentoiy) given for this UtUe piece at its first appearance in 
the Plainsong and Mediaeval Mnsic Society's publication The MtuicaL Notation 
qfthe Middle Ages, 1890, and continued in their subsequent volume Early Engliah 
Hamumy, 1897, under the editorship of the writer of the present work, has now to 
be corrected. It was formerly considered that the whole of the MS. Bodley 57a 
was of the same period ; experts however are at present of opinion that, while the 
body of the MS. is of the tenth century, this piece was inserted after 11 00. Tet, 
considering both its technical character, and the method of its notation, the music 
itself would seem to be of the eleventh century. 



9a 



METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 



of the composition is part of a hymn to St. Stephen, a version 
of which occurs in the Sarum Aniiphonaly where the passage 
is noted thus: — 




Ut ta - o . . . . pro • pi - d • a - tiu in - ter-ven-ta Do-mi -nos 




^'^I^ f l 3»,'v' 



DOS por-ga - tot . a pec-ea - tli iun-gmt oe - -Ud-Ti-- bu . 



This, it may be supposed, would be the version adopted by 
a composer probably of the west country ; nevertheless, it will 
be seen that in the close and in one or two other portions of the 
two-part composition the notes given are different from those 
of the Sarum use ; while upon the word purgcUos also a few 
conjunctive notes have been omitted. The composition is as 
follows ; — 



UT TUO PROPITIATUS. 



Bod. Lib. (Bodley 57a). 

19 8 




^ 



<^^ 



-€^ 



.Ol 



33: 



EL 



12: 



ZC 



Z2 



i 



33: 



V<» FrineipalU. 
h 



h 



g . h k 



n . h 




h 



ff . h g g f 
Q fJ CJ 



33 



h 



g f g h 

cj Q ri 



i 



O- 



*): 



Ut too pro - - pi - ti - - 



3 



3 



33: 



-^ 



-&- 



i 



331 



ZZ 



33: 



-^ 



33: 



lo: 



is: 



h 

k 



i 
33: 



i 



f 

h 



i 



h 
h 



h k 

h g h 



m 



1 k 1 k 
f g h g 



-^ 



h 
h 



m 



tUBy 



in - ter - - ven - - 



. to 



THE NEW ORGANUM 



93 



1 



8 



zz: 



-&- 



zz 



Z2E 



ZC 



32: 



JSl 



-&- 



m 



gj Q o 

k g fgk.dedfki ki In. 

okk ikk.gkgfgkkkgf. 

■^ <^ Q Q ■ fj t P rj ^ rj C »-hS^ 



S 



za: 



■^ 



Do . mi - - - niu ium jrap - - ga - - - tot 



13 5 6 


4 


s 


4 18 


8 13 


1 


g k t m 
S k g k 


1 

k 


k 
i 


^-rr- 

1 k . f 
k k . k 


^ ^-^ r. 

g k . f 
1 k . k 


g 
g 

ri 1 



pec -- ca-----ti8 inn - - gat ooe 



318841 3641 



1 T e 





—rn = 


t r^ 


t= 


■ „ ■ d^ 


-°-7rt 


e 


fgfeoe.dode t 


k d k 1 


^^ 

k k 


k 


g kgfe.fggef 


d d f 


g k 

1 






^ rj 




O G> 


^^ 



-----U... ci--Yi---- hoM 



* This oompotitiqn was the snhject of an interesting article in the Vierie^fahtB- 
•ckriftfOf Musikwiutnachaftt 1890, by Dr. Oscar Fleischer, who seems to regard the 
work rather as an adaptation than aa an original composition. His reconstraction of 
the organal part, containing in his view the original snhject^ deserves to be recorded 
here as a monnment of ingenuity : — 



i 



JSL 



•JOL 



■JSC 



1» 



za: 



zz 



-^ 



za: 



is: 



^ 



za: 



nc: 



za: 



W=^ 



gj ^ 



•JSL 



za: 



ra ^ aai:: 



94 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

This example would seem tx> be divided by a wide interval 
as regards the method of composition if not also in time 
from the Winchester Troper^ for the method is now apparently 
completely free. The trammels of the parallel and oblique 
movements have almost entirely disappeared^ contrary move* 
ment being employed wherever possible, while all restrictions 
also respecting the character of the intervals to be used have 
apparently been removed; the dissonances of the major and 
minor third are now frequently introduced, and indeed would 
seem to have become almost as vital a part of the material 
of Organum as the orthodox concords themselves, while the 
major sixth also makes here and there a hesitating and 
tentative appearance, and even the second and the seventh 
are represented. We may remark, however, that no system 
appears in the use of the dissonant intervals, and no trace 
of a principle, except such as may be found in the fact that 
of the discords the third is that which is most frequently 
used; and this use of the third, no doubt, was due not 
only to its position as part of the old occurws, but also to 
a growing feeling with respect to the interval itself which 
was soon to bring about a considerable alteration in its 
status; on the other hand, the true character of the sixth 
was not at all perceived by the composer of the piece before 
us^ for while we find eight intervals of the second there 



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Dr. Fleischer, having revealed this pleasing melody, is stmck hy the pentatonic 
character of its scale, and suggests that we probably have before ns the tone of 
some Gaelic folk song, afterwards worked npon by a leanied composer of the 
time. This theory of a tone in the npper part was probably suggested by 
the first three sections of the composition, which give as they stand the same 
result as Dr. Fleischer's reconstmction; for his treatment of the rest, however, 
and for his speculations with regard to the whole, it must be doabted whether 
there is any real wanant. 



THE NEW ORGANUM 



95 



are only four sixths. Tet amid all this confusion we 
may still perceive^ from the large number of fourths (seven- 
teen) employed^ and from the two cases in which they 
are used in parallel movement with three consecutive 
notes of the melody, that the method of this composition 
originates in the free Organum described in the Enchiriadis 
and the Scholia. 

That the use of all sorts of intervals was not confined to 
England at this period seems clear from another specimen, 
of rather later date than the last, contained in a MS. in the 
Biblioth^ue Nationale, at Paris (No. ii39). It is noted in 
neumes, without clef, but now upon a stave of two lines; 
translation therefore with some approach to certainty is 
possible, as indeed M. de Coussemaker seems to have proved 
in a rendering published in his Histoire de VHarmonie au 
Moyen Age^ which is substantially as follows : — 



HIRA LEGE, HIRO ICODO. 

BibL Nat. Paris MS. 11399 Hittoirt de VHarmonie au Mcyen Age (Coussemaker), 
MmumenUt PL XXIIL 




19- 




231 



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Mi - ra le - ge> mi • ro mo - do, De - ns for -mat ho - mi-nem^ 
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31 1643 12633 6446 



■ The note corered by the circamflex accent represents the plica, a graoe note, 
the nature of which will be explained later. 



96 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 




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It 



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Before passing to an examination of this example it may 
be well to take note of the fact that the disposition of the 
melody or subject in the lower place — a circumstance which 
was observable in the MS. of the Ambrosian library, and 
again in our last example, is seen also here, and that it now 
represents a change in the method of Organum which was both 
general and permanent; this will be evident as we proceed, for 
in future examples the organal voice will be found always 
above the theme. With respect to the reason for this sudden 
reversal of the old method we are at present quite without 
information; notwithstanding the comparative magnitude of 
the change, its necessity in the view of the contemporary 
musicians has never apparently been explained, and it remains 
among the many enigmas, still unsolved, which are presented 
to us by this period — 1050 to 11 50 — the dark age of poly- 
phonic music. 



THE NEW ORGANUM 



97 



The subject of thk composition is not^ like the last^ a frag- 
ment of ecclesiastical melody arranged in notes of equal length, 
but a metrical song; and although we may perhaps doubt 
whether the words given are those for which it was first made, 
it is evident that the pleasant melody itself has not been tam- 
pered with, and that the whole setting is cast in the original 
form of the subject, which is a triple (Trochaic) rhythm in 
strains of which four are regular and one irregular. With 
respect to the intervals employed in the Organum, it may be 
sud that they have been chosen with less freedom than those 
of the example last given, for we find here no seventh, and the 
seconds are only used in passing. The important place given 
in the former example to the fourth is now taken by the fifth, 
for this interval appears twenty-two times, and once in parallel 
movement above three consecutive notes of the subject; the 
fourth, on the other hand, is only to be found in nine cases. 
The thirds and sixths are used in about the same proportion 
ai^ in the former example, that is to say the third seventeen 
times and the sixth four times; the unison appears sixteen 
tames and the octave eight times. Thus, in comparing this 
example with the former one, we may notice the important 
fact, illustrative no doubt of the influence of theory upon 
practical composition, that the tendency is largely towards 
an increase of concord; for while in the Ut tuo, &c., the 
proportion of concord to discord was less than two to one, 
in the Mhra lege it is about two and a half to one. This 
will appear from the following table: — 



UthiOjJte, 



iralege. 



Iktxbvalb. 


CONCX>BD. 


Discord. 


74 
76 


46 

55 


a8 
ai 



Of the example as a whole it may be said that it resembled 

WOOLDKIDOB H 



98 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

the former one in a complete absence of rule or system in the 
use of the discordant inter^als^ with however the same possible 
exception in the case of the thirds. We may also note that 
the device of putting more notes than one against one of the 
theme^ or vice versa, increases^ and is more intelligently applied 
than in the former example ; and finally that the fifth is now 
used in closings as well as the octave and the unison. 

With respect to the reason for the substitution of the fifth 
for the fourth as the governing interval of this kind of 
Organum, it is difficult to arrive at a satisfactory conclusion. 
It was probably an innovation, since at present we know of 
no free organum of the fifth, and may possibly have been 
the result of a simple inversion of the former governing 
interval, arising as a natural consequence from the inversion 
of the principal and organal voices. But whatever the reason 
may have been, the superior importance of the fifth was ever 
afterwards maintained. 

In the confused method of composition revealed in th^se 
examples we see probably the archaic phase of artistic music. 
If we may hazard the conjecture, it would seem to represent 
an attempt to employ the inconsonant intervals of the old free 
organum in a new manner, and thus to extend the application 
of principles which had already made their appearance by 
a kind of accident in the pre^artistic period of sjrmphonious 
singing. We may in fact perhaps not unreasonably suppose 
that delight in the variety of sound and comparative freedom 
of progression which were the result of the introduction of the 
inconsonant intervals in the free portions of the old Organum 
suggested an attempt to create a similar freedom and variety 
in those parts which were still dominated by the paraUel 
fourths. 

In this point of view it might perhaps naturally be expected 
that in the works of the learned writers upon Organum coming 
next after Ouido, we should have found traces of some attempt 
to regularize the inconsonant intervals, rather than a system 



THE NEW ORGANUM 99 

which excludefl them and introduces instead an arrangement 
of mixed concords ; but the course which was actually taken 
by the theorists will easily be seen to have been the natural 
and indeed the only possible one if we consider^ with respect 
to the inconsonant intervals^ that while the true limits of their 
application^ from the point of view in which they had been 
originally adopted, had already been reached, their use had not 
resulted in the evolution of any progressive element. The 
introduction of the inconsonant intervals into the old organum 
was in obedience to no essential and fruitful musical principle, 
but merely to a rule — ^variously explained by different writers, 
but arising in any case out of the strict conditions of the old 
parallelism — ^which obliges the organal voice from time to time 
to hold a certain sound instead of passing below it ; and it is 
the continuance of the melody under these circumstances, by 
the principal voice, which actually creates the discordant 
intervals. The organal voice is in fact scarcely a free agent, 
having little or no liberty of choice except in the note before 
the close; and though it is evident from Guidons account of 
the system that the inconsonant mtervals, thus rather mechani- 
cally introduced, had become in his time a source of pleasure, 
and that for a while the endeavour to advance the art of music 
by a careful and attentive treatment of these intervals was 
undertaken, it is equally evident that no real extension of their 
use, or such as could ever bring about the rational freedom of 
the organal voice, was possible in the old free organum. 

The pleasure therefore which was evidentiy taken in the 
mere sound of the inconsonant intervals at this time, and which, 
from its preparing the ear to be the judge of s3^phonious 
combinations, had created the appearance of development in 
the old free organum, could not hinder the theoretical exclusion 
of these intervals, nor maintain them against the apparent 
fact that their use had evolved no principle capable of exten- 
sion ; and though practical composers may have had recourse 
to experiment with the object of discovering such a principle, 

H 2 



lOo METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

and 80 of preserving the inconsonant interyals^ it is evident that 
the experiments vvbich seem to have been made were sUll at 
least inconclusive^ even if they do not lend support to the axiom 
that empirical methods are foreign to the true line of progress 
in any art whatever. In short, we may say that no real place^ 
theoretically speakings for the inconsonant intervals as yet 
existed among the materials of music ; their (^portunity indeed 
had not yet come, and many years were still to elapse before 
the principle which actually governs their use could be entirely 
perceived. 

Reviewing the work of this time, both in its theoretical and 
practical aspects, we are chiefly struck by the great progress 
actually made during a transition extending apparently over 
little more than fifty years. Not only may it be said that an 
art of music now begins to appear, but also that the art has 
already taken up positions of great importance for its future 
development ; for by the substitution of the contrary movement 
for the similar and oblique as the governing mode of pro- 
gression, and by the deliberate mixture of discord with concord 
— even though the true meaning of this latter process was 
not as yet perceived — ^principles were established whose in- 
fluence not only controlled the methods of the relatively finished 
practice which immediately followed, but was felt throughout 
the whole of the polyphonic period. 

But, striking as the progress thus effected must appear, a 
glance at the existing examples of the new artistic music at 
once reveals the fact that one very important element of free 
composition is still wanting, namely, a musical measure. The 
measure of those examples in which measure is present at all 
is, as in all hymns and songs, in simple accordance with that 
of the words for which the music was composed ; but although 
this method is sufficient for small pieces, in which one kind 
of metre can be maintained without fatigue throughout in all 
the parts, it bars the way to any attempt towards extended 
or varied compositions, or to the employment of essentially 



THE NEW ORGANUM loi 

different kinds of metre at the same time. The freedom there- 
fore which had been bestowed upon music by the principles 
of contrary movement and prAneditated discord^ and which 
was manifested in the flowing counter melody or free organal 
party was to some extent neutralized by the bonds of similar 
rhythm so long as these were maintained; liberation from 
these bonds was necessary before any fresh extension of the 
limits of music was possible^ and this liberation^ which could 
only be effected by the establishment of a purely musical 
standard of measure^ was to be the work of the period which 
we are next to consider. 



CHAPTER VI 



DISCANT OB MEASURED MUSIC 



THB MBA8UBBD NOTATION AND ITS BBLATION 

TO FIXBD RHYTHMS 

Thb wide divergence of the methods of artistic music from 
those of strict Organmn^ which was exhibited in our kst 
chapter^ rendered necessary a special distinguishing name for 
the new system ; and the name which was chosen, DUcanius, 
a double or diverse song, though it indicates nothing that was 
not already contained in Organum, not only proved sufficient 
for its original purpose but was also continued after the advent 
of musical measure. A special name, CafUua mensurabiUs, 
was indeed often adopted by many authors, to describe the 
music in which measure was present throughout as opposed 
to that in which it was either non-existent or only partially 
applied, but the new name did not exclude the older one, 
and both continued to be used indififerentiy for the same 
purpose. 

The origin of musical measure is obscure, but it is difficult 
to resist the conclusion that it arose from the desire, at a time 
when metrical progression was the only known means of 
imparting life and purpose to the composition, to employ 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 103 

essentially different kinds of metre in different voices at the 
same time. Originally^ as our examples of the early practical 
music indicate^ a metre of one kind^ that is to say essentially 
either duple or triple^ must have been used either alone or 
possibly in company with another of the same kind; and this 
method could of course occasion no difficulty^ since even 
when the metres were different^ as for instance in the mixture 
of dactyl with spondee^ the proportion would be equal; but 
the attempt to mix duple metre with triple would create 
confusion^ and it would at once be perceived that the only 
way to accomplish this object^ to accommodate the dactylic 
metre for instance to the trochaic or the iambic to the ana- 
paestic, must be the discovery of a common musical measure 
in which the duple and triple proportions of these metres 
might be blended. 

No doubt the singing of several real parts together in similar 
metre had already, in the period represented by our last 
examples, established a simple idea of measure, suitable to 
the necessities of the case, in which the musical long was in 
principle exactly equal to two metrical breves; and in fact 
references to such a conception of measure are to be found 
in the works of the theorists. The anonymous treatise, Dw- 
can/fM Positio Vulgaris^ for instance, given by Jerome of 
Moravia as the embodiment of the oldest rules for measured 
music, describes the long note which contained three beats 
as ^exceeding the measure,' because it is more than two^; 
and Walter Odington, writing later, says distinctly that among 
the earlier 'organists' the long had two beats or times, 'as 
in the metres *'. Moreover, there are material traces of the 
fact; at least one little note formula (P or 8)9 held by all 

1 ' Ultm mensiuam rant quae miniu quam uno tempore et ampUiu quam daobiu 
mBDganiitaT, at semibreTes . . . . et long* qnando loiig» leqaitor; habet enim 
trU tempoHL' Omaae, Ser^ L 94. 

' ' LongA antem apod prions organietaa duo tantnm haboerit tempora, tic la 
oMiria. . . . Brevis vero apod prions nsolata est in dnas semibnTes; apod 
modemosy allqaando ia tns, aliqaando ia doaa.* Ibid. i. a^. 



I04 METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 

the mensuraUstfl to signify a triple proportion^ was employed 
by certain musicians^ even in the latter half of the twelfth 
century^ to express the sequence of two equal notes ^; and 
this custom is extremely suggestive of a period in which the 
figure formed part of a binary system^ applicable to either 
kind of metre separately. 

Apart, however, from these instances, and some others which 
seem to reveal the fact that a duple proportion was for some 
time struggling to maintain itself against the triple', the 
whole of the theoretical and practical work of the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries describes and exemplifies a ternary 
scheme. It would appear, therefore, that the more natural 
and eventually triumphant kind of measure failed at this time 
to satisfy the immediate needs of musicians, and gave way 
before a system in which the long note was valued as three 
or divided into two unequal fractions — a short valued as one, 
and a long valued as two ^ — and that the triple proportion was 
thus definitely established as paramount, and was eventually 
extended, with certain modifications, to every kind of musical 
equivalence and to all forms of notation. 

It is not uncommonly supposed that this decision in favour 
of a triple as opposed to a duple proportion was due to the 
influence of ecclesiastics^ and toMheir desire to signify the 
participation of music in the adoratbn of the most holy Trinity. 
This notion, however, is quite incorrect, and can only have 
arisen from a superficial consideration of the remarks of the 



^ This f onnula in its belated use ezpresies generaUy two notes of the tribaraeh, 
or foot of three short beats, a metre akin to the trochee and iambic ; formerly 
it would have served equally well to denote either these or the two short notes 
of the dactyl or anapaest. 

* In the rales given in the lX9oantU8 PotiUo VuigariB tot equivalence, we find 
that four breves may be the equivalent of the triple long, or normal long and 
Imve : — * Super quamlibet notam firmi cuitus ad minus due note, kmga scilicet 
et brevis, twl aiiquid hU $guipoilen$, tU quaiuor drvMS, vel tree cum plica brevi, 
prciferri debent.' 

> 'Omnes autem note discantus sunt mensurabiles per directam brevem et 
directom longam/ Ibid. Comae. SoHpt i. 95. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 105 

theorists with respect to the subject. In these remarks the two 
ideas are certainly connected^ but the connexion gives rise 
to nothing more than an assertion of the mystical signification 
of the ternary number; the triple proportion^ in fact, being 
taken as established, attention is then drawn to the similitude 
which exists between it and the highest perfection^. And 
indeed it would be strange if practical men, writing upon a 
practical matter within their competence, should have been 
unanimous in so great an absurdity as this which has been 
imputed to them ; for no artistic means probably, and certainly 
none of so much importance as that which we are now con- 
sidering, was ever yet adopted from inartistic considerations; 
and the true explanation of the victory of triple proportion, 
if it is to be discovered, must be looked for in the conditions 
of the art itself at the moment when proportion was first 
applied. 

The suj^estion offered above, namely, that the musical 
measure of this period was probably adopted as a means of 
creating a practical agreement between essentially different 
kinds of metrical rhythm, finds great support in a sajdng of 
Walter Odington, that the long note of the triple proportion, 
the key and centre of the new system, derived its origin from 
the dactylic and anapaestic metres^. The bearing of this 
statement upon the question will be perceived if we consider 
the manner in which these metres, in themselves duple, are 
adapted in the mensural system to the accompaniment of the 
trochaic and iambic metres, in which the rhythm is triple. 
The metres to be combined and their adaptations may be 
shown side by side in the following manner: — 



* Pieado-Ariitotlo, writmg in the thirteenth oentnxy, in his aoooont of the 
triple long, 'inima super omnes, foiu et origo ipeins ■cientie atqne finis/ says: 
'KcD inunerito ad summam refertnr trinitatem, qnia res qnelihet natnralia 
ad similitndinem dirine nature ez tribns constat invenitur.' — CouiH. Script, 
i. 370. 

' Ibid. i. 391. 



io6 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



Poino Mbtbbs. 


• 

FOBTIO KbTSBS IK COMMOF MUBICAL 

Mkabubb. 


Trochee (3) 


Iftinbiui (3) 


Two Trochees (6) 


TwoIunU (6) 


2 I 


M — 

I 2 


- w, - w 

a I, a I 


I a, I a 


— WW 

ail 


M W - 

I I a 


3i « a 


I a, 3 


Dwtyl (4) 


AiiAiMert(4) 


Dm«71(6) 


AiiipMst(6) 



Here it will be seen that in the adaptations the dactylic 
and anapaestic feet maintain their duple proportion in arsis 
and thesis^ while the new triple measure in each half of the 
foot brings the whole in each case into equality^ both in pro- 
portion and accent, with two trochees or two iambL We can 
hardly suppose that the mensural system here shown could 
have been evolved apart from these adaptations, or that the 
perfection with which they are achieved was the result of 
chance coincidence, and we may perhaps therefore understand 
Odington^s saying that we owe the triple long to the metres 
which he mentions, in the sense that musical measure arose 
out of the process here displayed. 

Several examples of composition belonging apparently to the 
period during which the tentative rules of the DUcaniua Posiiio 
Vulgaris were gradually evolved, and in which is displayed the 
transition from poetic to musical measure, are to be found in 
various collections. Of these the earliest probably is a setting 
of the metrical sequence Verbum banum et suave, of very early 
twelfth century date, which exists in a MS. now in the Library 
of Douai. It is noted in neumes of a simple character, upon 
a large stave, and with clefs; there are six verses of words 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



107 



and three of music, each verse of music being once repeated 
to different words; the first, third, and sixth are here given, 
and all the music. It will be noticed that the composition 
contains instances of the equivalence of four breves to the 
triple long, mentioned in the early treatise^. 

VBBBUM BONUM BT SUAVB. 



Idlnaiy of DooaL HitMn de VHarmonie au Moym Ag9 (Coiufleiiiaker), 
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DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



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It would appear from this example that the learned doctrine 
of the New Organmn had not been altogether without effect 
upon the work of the practical artistic composers. Theoretical 
dissonances are not now abolished^ it is true, but a method is 
introduced into their treatment which certainly indicates an 
approach towards the theoretical position, and an appreciation 
of its leading principle. It will be observed that the incon- 
sonant intervals are no longer treated with the same freedom 
as in our former examples, even the thirds for instance being 
not consecutive, but in all cases (except one) both preceded 
and followed by one of the orthodox concords; and in this 
circumstance we may perhaps perceive a confession of the 
theoretically inconsonant nature of the interval. And, as we 
shall see, the principle of treatment here indicated is carried 
further in its application, and becomes more clear, in the 
specimens which immediately follow; for in these composi- 
tions it is displayed not only in a rule of avoiding consecutive 
dissonances, but also in the fact that the guarded dissonances 
which are allowed now fall exclusively upon the weak beat of 
the rhythm. If therefore the method of the piece just given 
was in some degree an approach towards the learned theory, 
this method of the rather later examples is still more so, for it 
is a confession of the practically unsuitable character of these 



no 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



intervals as compared with consonances^ since the composer 
now admits that they are to be treated lightly^ and to be passed 
over with less emphasis than the entirely satisfying orthodox 
concords. 

The change just described is well shown in a little compo- 
sition (dating apparently from the early years of the twelfth 
century, though written in a later hand) now in the Library 
of LiUe, and given in facsimile by M. de Coussemaker in his 
Histoire de PHarmanie au Moyen Age. It may be translated 
as follows : — 



AGNUS FILI VIBOINIS. 



Library of LUle, Higtoir$ ds tHamumU au Jfoym Agt (CooBaemaker), 
MonwnmtBf PL XXVL 




.€2. 



.Q. 



23: 



/T\ 



i &—^ 



Ag 



niu 



fi 



U 




▼ip - ffi 
A "^ 



nu 



IZL 



iq: 



23 



8 



8 



^^^ ra. 



8 



^ 



1 



32: 



3 



-^ 



m 



6 

/7\ 



xj: 



zr 



o * 



22: 



ri3" 



Pri - mi 



■^ 



lap 
23: 



sum 



ho - - mi 



22: 



iq: 



ms 



22: 



S-6 



in: 



nx 



2-4 

^A 



8 



3 



.CL 



^ 



1 



o "• 



Bes 



tau 



raiu per 



g 



gj l^<g 



gui - 



i 



1 



fif 



1 



■:©- 



ZZ 



1 



■T 



TX. 



-^9- 



2£!= 



g 



-^- 



8 



22: 



6 3 



3 



^T2- 



Tu - i . . 



sane - ti 



S 



ZC 



zz 



3 



4 8 



1 



I 



pas . ca - - • um 



g » * 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC iii 



J-^ o • f° " p-T^ r ^ [°"-o r^- " ^^ 



Mi-Be-re--re no -.-. bi«. 



^^ ' ^ ,. . ^^ ' ^-^^ r <^ - > ' r^ . JF 



8 4A 8641ft 8 



This is the first of our examples of this period of which it 
can be said that it is written in the original in the square 
notation. The system which it represents is however still 
exceedingly primitive^ the rule of interpretation being that all 
single notes^ whatever their shape^ are of one and the same 
value, and that all groups of notes, whatever their number, are 
to be valued as collectively equal to the single note or group 
above or below which they stand. 

It may be well, before passing on, to draw attention to the 
chromatic alterations suggested in the upper part of this 
example. These are in accordance with the rule for faha 
musica at this period, which enjoined that the imperfect fifth 
and the tritone fourth^ occurring as intervals, or simultaneously 
in a situation requiring concord, should be made perfect by 
chromatic extension or diminution ^ ; the considerations which 
guided musicians in the application of this rule in discant were 
chiefly such as already governed the alteration of plainsong, 
namely care for the melody. 

Another kind of chromatic alteration, adopted entirely from 
plainsong, probably already existed in discant at this period. 

^ ' St ideo Qritar qnestio ex hoc quod yidelicet que fait neoettitas in musica 
comiderari de f alia musica, nve de fialsa mntatione, cum nnllum regnlare debeat 
acdpere falsnm, sed potius veram. At quod dioeudam est quod mntatio fialsa, 
nve falsa musica, non est inutilis, imo est necessaria propter bonam consonantiam 
ioveniendam et malam vitaodam. Kam sic dictum est: d velimns habeze dia- 
pente, de necessitate opoiiet quod habeamns tree tonos cam semitonio; ita quod 
si aliqna flgiua nt in h fa, j^ mi (B), et alia in /a til (F) acnto per natniam, tunc 
non est ibi oonsonantia, sed dissonantia cum semitonio duplici. Yerumtamen 
potest ileri ibidem per f alsam musicam quam appellamns, scilicet quando fadmus 
de semitonio tonum, rel e ccnverso; non tamen falsa musicay sed inutitata.* 
^MOMymM qf As Library qf 8.JH4 (Omsse. Script, i. 314). 



IIS 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



An idea of its nature may be gathered from the examples 
appended by Jean de Garlande to his short account of it, which 
may perhaps be interpreted as follows : — 



-i A \ -* ||(W;p. ^.li. p. II 


g>jJJ o- 1 o- o- ,^. o-ll'^^ ^-1 -^-fl 







« 




/Wi' 




"ff 


1 


^ 


Q ' 


a • 


hMI 



Our next example is especially interesting, for it is not only 
a very primitive specimen of writing in three parts, but contains 
also the earliest attempt at present known to produce imitations 
by one voice of passages uttered by another. It is probably 
of the same date as our last illustration, since the method of 
notation is the same in both : all single notes, that is to say, 
are of the same value, and the groups are equal to the notes, 
single or otherwise, to which they are opposed. It Thrill be 
observed that again a large number of discords, including 
several tritone fourths, appear upon the weak beats of the 
rhythm, while with five exceptions, four of which are thirds 
and sixths, the strong beats are marked by concord. 



CUSTODI NOS.t 

Bib. Kat. Pteis MS. 813, Hi$Mn ds VHcarmmie ou Moyen Age (CbuBsemaker), 
Monumtnts, PL XXYII. 



^ |J?J? 1^ . i;;:^ 



I- 




no8 do - 



- nu 



ne 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



"3 



r4 



'^ ' f<''5-^^ 



^ 



^ 



Q * C i rf ■ Q * 



W 



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r ' ^m g> » fj 



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la: 



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^ A 



s 



SC 



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Z2: 



sub 



nun . • teg 



xm - - ne 



fa * ^ • 



1^ ^ I 



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fTf-' «g- ^^^ 



• .^^ • 



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231 



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I 



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ZE 



Cos • to - cU no8 Om - nes ha - ios 



- ca - U 



, ^J ^ rj . o . I rJ . j^. 



zz 



■ o > I — 



'■^ Q * 



^^^ 



ZEZ 



"> < p , 



J.^> J> g^ 



32 



ZZ 



n* <g • 



3 



rziz 



zz 



•"• frf^^-"-ff^^,.. 



per ter - mi - nos Ut pa - pU - lam o - ca - li 



— 1 


— Ki — ^r" 


J 1 


^ 


— r3 — s — 


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— rdt^ 
— o , 


— ^ra — I— 


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WOOLDKIDGB 



di 



• <•••• iw^» 



114 METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 

The lowest voice still takes the theme — here probably some 
well-known hymn or spiritual song; the part next above is 
composed with direct and sole reference to this, and obeys 
therefore the rules of two-part composition ; the upper part or 
triplum is an added voice, governed now by one of the lower 
parts and now by the other, both as regards the nature of its 
intervals and the character of its movement ^ And here again 
it is interesting to observe that rules which in substance 
remained in force for three-part compositions throughout the 
period next foUowiog are to be found clearly recognized iii 
this early specimen. Concerning the passages of imitation, 
it is difficult to say to what their appearance in the music of 
this time is due, unless they may be supposed to represent the 
partial development of accident; their principle, so far as it 
was understood, was afterwards displayed in a special form 
of composition called the 'Rondel,' but in general music the 
use of imitation is not frequent. Its full significance was not 
in fact perceived until a much later period. 

The basis of the mensural system having now been indicated, 
and seen to consist in a fundamental triple value, divisible 
primarily either into three equal or two unequal parts, we may 
next proceed to consider the method of notation by means of 
which these values, in all the necessary varieties of their appli- 
cation, were visibly expressed. This method, though simple 
enough in the early period of its existence, while its purposes 
were still confined to the presentation of the cardinal facts of 
the mensural system, became highly complicated as time 
advanced and the system extended, so much so indeed that 
an author's explanation of it will frequently be found to 
constitute the principal part of his treatise; and if we may 
judge from the strength and directness of the reproaches 

^ ' Qui antem triplum voluerit openri, respiciendum est tenorem et discantum, 
ita quod si diacordat cum tenore, non discordat cum discantu, vel converao; 
et prooedat ulterius per concordantias, nunc aBoendendo cum tenore vel descen- 
dendo, nunc cum discantu, ita quod non semper cum altero tantum.' Art Camius 
MensurdtriHs (CiMMse. Soript L 13a). 



DISC ANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 115 

aometimes levelled by learned theorists at those of their 
brethren who were so unfortunate as to differ from them^ we 
may even suppose that considerable warmth of feeling was 
sometimes aroused by questions with respect to the more or 
less logical expression in notes of a musical phrase or formula. 
Yet, though we may often regret that the discussion of these 
questions was so much indulged by the theorists, and carried 
on often to the exclusion of information with regard to other 
matters which we would willingly possess, we must admit that 
the discussions were generaUy founded upon real distinctions, 
and were therefore in a sense necessary to the building up 
of a method of considerable importance not only for the time 
being but also for the future; for the simple system, which 
in our own day serves for the presentation of rhythms far more 
intricate than any with which the mediaeval composers were 
called upon to deal, is undoubtedly directly derived, through 
a continuous process of pruning and simplification, from the 
elaborate finished method of the thirteenth century. 

Notwithstanding, however, the importance in a certain sense 
of the matter of these discussions, it is obvious that from the 
point of view in which our present inquiry is undertaken 
the methods of notation must appear as of secondary interest, 
compared with those of the music which they are intended 
to represent. It has been considered sufficient therefore, in 
the description which is to follow, to exhibit only the 
generally accepted forms of the first complete system of 
mensural notation; the somewhat obscure phases which 
marked its period of growth, and the heresies which still 
existed at the time of its final settlement, will be left out 
of account. 

Material signs, by which the long and short notes of the 
mensural system might be visibly distinguished from each 
other, were, as we have seen, at first lacking. The two-voice 
parts continued to be written in the notation of the ecclesias- 
tical song, that is to say in neumes or other signs devoid of 

I 2 



ii6 METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 

special signification as regards time^ and in the rehearsal of a 
discant the values of the individual sounds were defined by 
the conductor and committed to the memory of the performers^. 
But when the inconvenience and loss of time which must have 
been occasioned by this cumbrous method' had become^ as 
we may suppose, sufficientiy apparent, material signs were 
adopted ; and at once two well known figures — the first parents 
in fact and simple source of our own multiple forms of notation 
— the long and the breve, made their appearance in music. The 
characteristic shapes of these figures were derived from forms 
already existing and well known to musicians; discant was 
already noted either, as we have said, in the ecclesiastical system 
of neumes, or in some transitional and simplified form of it, such 
perhaps as that shown by M. de Coussemaker in his facsimile of 
the hymn Mira Lege or the already square shapes of Custodi nos 
in the same volume; and either iA these forms would include 
the two fundamental signs chiefly used to express notes not 
in ligature, the punctum or old grave accent, which signified 
a descending note, and the virga or old acute accent, which 
was used when the note ascended. These were the two signs, 
hitherto unassociated with the idea of exact duration, which, 
in the square shapes in which they had last appeared as 
unmeasured, musicians now adapted to the new purpose of 



1 • In antiqnii libris habebant puncta equiTOca nimis, quia flimplida materialia 
faemnt eqnalia, aed solo intellecta operabantnr dioendo : intelligo istam longam, 
inteUigo illam brevem/ Anon. Brit. Mua. Royal M88. {Oousu, Script, i. 344). 

It would appear that the same method was porsned with respect to the defim- 
tion of the intervals employed: 'Maxima pan oognitioms antiqaoram fait in 
predictiB sine materiali significatione, quod ipsi habebant notitiam conoordantianim 
melodie complete, sicat de diapason, diapente, et diatessaron . . . pront habebant 
respectam snperioris ad cantam inf eriorem, et docebant alios dicendo : Andiatis 
▼OS vel retineatis hoc canendo. Bed materialem significationem panram habebant, 
et dioebant : Pnnctos ille saperior sic concordat cum pnncto inf eriori et snffioiebat 
eis.' Ibid. 

' 'Et nimio tempore laborabant anteqnam scirent bene aliqnid, qnod nnnc 
ez leri ab omnibus laborantibns drca talia percipitnr mediantibns predictonim, 
ita qnod qnilibet pins proficeiit in una hoia quam in septem ante quoad longom 
ire.' Ibid. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



117 



expressing time-value; and thenceforward the virga became 
the Umga or long note^ and the punctum the brevis or short 
note of Discant. 



ViBOA. 



; 



Longa. 



1 



33: 



PniOTITli. 

% 



Brevii. 

m 



131 



Modem equivalents K 



No new sign was adopted to express the value of the long 
note of three times ; it was considered sufficient to repeat the 
longa just shown above^ which^ under the same name and with 
an understanding respecting the circumstances which were to 
give it triple value^ served to designate the complete note, the 
foundation and source of the whole system. This note^ in its 
triple sense, was called langior Umga, or longa per/ecta, while 
the long of two beats was called either hnga imperfecta — 
as needing the addition of another sound to make up the 
ternary number of the complete note ^~or longa recta, the true 



' Hie demonstntiaiis of vbXjib, for the moBic of this period, will be ledaoed, 
Aoooidiiig to cmtom and for the take of oonvenienoe, to ooe-fonrth of the 



' 'Longa antem apad prioree organiitas duo tantom habnerit tempora, ric 
in metris j aed poetea ad perfectionem didtor, nt sit triam temporam ad simili- 
tndinem beatissime trinitatis qnod est sanuna peif ectio^ didtorqne longa hnina- 
modi perfects.* Walter Odington, Couam, Script L 335. 

' Longa perfecta prima didtor et prindpalis; nam in ea omnes alie indndnntor. 
Peifecta didtnr eo qnod tribns temporibns mensnratnr. Est enim tenarins 
nnmems inter nnmeros perf ecdssimns pro eo qnod a snmma trinitate, qne vera 
est et pom perfection nomen assnmpdt. . . . Longa vero impe rf ecta sab iignra- 
tione pcrfecte est» dno tantom tempora ngnificat. Imperfecta qnidem pro taato 



ii8 METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 

lotig ^f or Bometimes Umga directa ; and this was no doubt the 
note of the eanttu planus in the older binary system. There 
were also two other notes of the same name. One was the 
longa plica, a long (either perfect or imperfect) to which a 
short stroke was added in order to indicate a grace, included 
in the value of the note, and taken either upon the note 
following below or the note following above ; in the first case 
the long was called longa plica descendenSy and preserved its 
normal position, in the second it was called aacetukns, and was 
inverted ^ The other note of the same name was the 
duplex tonga, or Umga superabundant, also perhaps a relic 
of an older binary system ; this note was valued as two 
perfect longs, or six beats (not three perfect longs or 
nine beats as the ternary system would require)', and 
was used sometimes in the compositions of this period to 
express the tenor or cantue planus, but is seldom, except in 
early music, found in the texture of the upper parts. Both 
these notes may be considered as extraneous to the actual 
system ; the plica from its merely ornamental character, and 
the duplex from its binary value. 



dicitor quia sine adintorio brevis preoedentis vel ieqnentis nalktenaB inTenitar.' 
Ar9 Oantus Menmnrdbilii (fioium. SeripL i. 117). 

* ' Recta longa appeUatnr ilia qne oootinet dnas rectaa breTes tantnm.' Jean 
de Garlande, Cousae, Script, i. 97. 

' 'Plica eat note divlBionis einsdem loni in giavem et In acutam, et debet 
formari in gattore cum epiglotta' Anon. Quedam de Arte ZHseantandi, Bib. Nat. 
Paris, MS. 81 a. 

PBendo-Aristotle giTet the time-YBlne of the grace note, namely one beat, 
or one-third of the perfect long and half of the imperfect. Of the lofHra pUea 
he Bays: 'Habet antem omnem potestatem regnlam et natnram qnam habet 
perfecta longa, nisi qnod in ooipora dno tempora tenet et nnnm in membris.' 
(Jean de Mniis, Speathan Musieae, explains, 'id est in plica vel inilexione). . . 
Est plica impeifecta in forma perfecte similis, sed regnlam imperfecte tenet 
et natnram, et continet nnnm tempus in corpore, reliqnum in membris.' Ommss. 
ScripL i. 373. 

' 'Duplex longa Yslet sex tempora.' Anon. De Arte Dieeanlandi, Bib. Nat. 
Paris, MS. 1 107. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



119 



LONGA. 



PimVMTA. 



1 



Ikpir- 

fictatel 

Rbcta. 



1 



Duplex. 



1 



Plica. 



1 



d 



t j-h^ 



23- 



73^3 



.CJf"^^^ 



^^^ 



Modem EqaiT&lents '. 



The division of the complete long note into two unequal 
fractions could also be effected by means of breves alone. In 
this case the lesser fraction was again represented, as in the 
Umgorhrevis division, by the breve of one time, the brevis recta, 
and the greater by the brevis alteray valued as two times. The 
breve, like the long, admitted the grace note, which was 
exhibited in the brevis plica, a figure similar in form to the 
langa plica but inverted in the lateral sense, that is to say, 
with the longer stroke now upon the left side. 

BREVIS. 



BXOTA. 



g 



Alteba. 



JOL 



Plici. 



p 



rftry 



b 



^^ 



Modern EqtuvaleDts. 



^ Hitherto it hai been wpomX, in the timnsUtion of the pUca into modem nota- 
tion, to exhibit a note of fnU ybIho followed by a snperflnons grace note in 
fmaller tjpe; bat tinoe the grace note, according to the rolee given by the 
theoriite, is to be counted as part of the principal note, and encroaches in a fixed 
proportion npon the normal duration of that note, it has been thooght desirable 
that in oor translations and illnstiations of Yslne this fact should be clearly 
expressed. The drcamflex accent placed above the grace note is intended to 
indicate the other important fact relating to it, namely, the method of pro- 
dnctioQ, — ' in the throat with the epiglottis,' — or as Paeodo- Aristotle more fally 
explains, 'per compositionem einglotti enm repercossione gattnris subtiUter 
indiua,' — which seems to have been peenllar to it. 



lao 



METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 



The principle of a triple proportion was also applied to the 
brevis recta^ which was divided into two unequal fractions 
represented by two kinds of semibreves^ minor and major; 
these^ like the two kinds of breves^ were identical in form, 
but the first was valued as one and the second as two. Again 
also the plica was admitted. It appears at first as a stroke 
joined to the lower right hand side of the lozenge which 
represents the semibreve. 



SEMIBRBVIS. 



MlVOB. 



£ 



Majob. 



1^ 



Plica. 



i^S_ 



-H^+T-f- 



Modem Equivalents. 



The mutual relations of the various parts of this scheme may 
in conclusion be briefly shown in the following diagram : — 



♦r 



♦r 





Brevis altera 


Semi 


brevis t 


naior 




♦r 

Semibrevis minor 




Brevis recta 


1 




peifecta 


« 








LoDga recta vel im] 






k 


r- 

Longa perf ecta 






• 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



121 



The system just described must appear as extremely arbitrary 
and illogical^ for it presents to us on the one hand notes of 
the same form but of different value^ and on the other notes 
of different form having the same value; while the existence 
of two kinds of breves^ brevis recta and brevis altera, which 
together perform exactly the same office as the imperfect long 
and breve^ is an especially perplexing circumstance, at first 
dght impossible to understand. But we have to remember 
that the mensural system was not first brought forward as a 
complete design expressing an independent idea^ but that it 
probably grew^ as has been said^ out of the necessity of bringing 
the poetic metres^ which at first formed the only rule of 
measure, to a common proportion. We have already seen in 
what manner the perfect longa, which according to Walter 
Odington had its origin in the dactylic and anapaestic metres, 
might arise from such an adaptation; and it may now be 
B^Vgc^ted that the brevis altera also may be due to the same 
source, and may have been evolved through the same process. 
In this point of view the mensural notation of these metres is 
the result of a compromise by which the figures formerly repre- 
senting the binary values of the dactyl and anapaest were retained 
while the values themselves were abandoned; the long was 
still represented by a long and the breves by breves, but the 
long was now valued as three, and the two breves necessarily 
became unequal in order to make up between them the triple 
proportion. While the figures representing the ternary metres, 
therefore, preserve their original meaning in the Cantus Met^ 
9wraJnli$y the binary metres are represented in it by a figure 
whose original meaning has given place to an arbitrary and 
artificial significance. This will be dear from the example : — 



MairieiJ foot with Us ralae 
In tho nMnsonl notation. 



Valno of th« meoMumi note 
in triple proportion, ahown 
in modm eqniTnlenti. 



Both nouBS and 

HHAKIHaBSTAIHSD. 



1 






p P * 






1 



^ 



FiGUBK BBTAIKXD, HXAmVO 
ABAVDONXD. 



1 






zsmzTJOna. 



I 



1 



g 



SL 



:q=<: 



laa METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

Yet ainoe the two short times of the binaiy metres are still 
technically breves^ and are figured as breves, they still also 
retain the name; a distinction however being necessary, the 
unnatural breve receives a special qualification. 

In some such way as this probably, that is to say in the 
adaptation of binary forms to the triple proportion, breves of 
different value were first perceived as necessary, and as per- 
forming an office different in its nature from that which 
pertained to the combination of the breve with the imperfect 
long. 

This suggestion of the origin of an important mensural 
form in the alteration of a metre may still appear somewhat 
improbable, unless we take into consideration the enormous 
influence which was exercised upon music at this time by the 
metrical rhythms. These had already, apparently, before the 
completion of the mensural notation, been reduced, by means 
of the common triple proportion, to a system of formulae, 
called Modes, the importance of which in the opinion of the 
time may be estimated from the fact that it formed a distinct 
and complete subject of discussion in every important treatise, 
from the Discanttu Positio VtUgariSy before 1150, down to 
the De Speculatione Musicae of Odington in the first quarter 
of the fourteenth century. In these modes, used either singly 
or in combination, all music was theoretically supposed to be 
written, and all the figures devised to represent the duration 
of sounds were also considered as specially expressing them; 
indeed, the connexion between these formulae and the visible 
signs of music, which will become fully apparent as we proceed, 
was so close that the author of the great treatise Ars Caniu$ 
MensurabiUs (generally supposed to be Franco of Cologne^), 



* The only putieiikn retpectiiig this writer which we posaeis are to be found 
in one of the eiinting copies of his work, a MS. of the frmrteenth oentniy in 
the library of 8. Di^, which oondndes with the following words: 'Explicit 
magna are mensoralnlis mnsioe Beverendi Viri coinsdam Domini FraoooniB, 
GapeUani Domini Fape, necnon Preceptoris Domns Coloniensinm hospitalia Sancti 



DISC ANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 123 

in the opening sentence of his chapter upon the mensural 



OS leniiolimiteiiL' It woold also appear that in a MS. traatifle by Giovanni 
(^ooniy in tbe library of Pint, mention is made of him as 'Magister Francbo 
de Colonia, prothonotarins.' Coiisw. VArt Harm., Ac, p. a a. 

Very early in the history of this treatise a claim to its anthorship was pat 
forward by another person. Hieronymns de Morayia, a writer of the thirteenth 
century, introduces the copy of it which is given in the text of his work thus : 
'Snbsequitur positio tertia lohannis, yidelioet de Burgundia, ut ez ore ipsius 
audivimus, vel, secundum vulgarem opinionem, Franconis de Colonia.' This general 
refutation of a common opinion may have been intended by Hieronymns to 
possess a particular application to a treatise by one Petrus Picardus which he 
has also included in his own work. This author from time to time paraphrases 
and onoe writes down without alteration the words of An Catibu MtntwnMU ; 
and though he perplexes us for a moment by giving both Franco and Johannes 
as the authorities for his statements, 'dictaque mea arti magistri F^nanconis 
de Colonia necmon et arbori magistri lohannis de Burgundia, quantumque potero, 
conformabo/ yet he eventually makes clear his opinion that An CarUus Mm- 
wwrabUU is not by John of Burgundy by his comment upon one of the paraphrases, 
'ut in magna arte magistri Franconis prius dicti latins declaratur.' The only 
contribution in fact of John of Burgundy to the treatise of Picardus appears, 
in that author's opinion, to be the 'tree' (probably a diagram of the same 
nature as our own just given above in the text), whose illustrative powers 
be refers to several times with erident admiration. Notwithstanding, however, 
the claim of John of Burgundy, ax cm ipBiuSt recorded by Hieronymns, it is 
difficult to resist the conclusion that the common opinion of his contemporaries 
waa the right one. John of Burgundy, if we may judge from the scarcity 
of the references to him in the treatises, was of comparatively small reputation, 
while the famous work to which he laid claim bears aU the marks of a master 
mind: it is original and dignified in style, and highly authoritative in the 
eDundation of its doctrine, a work in fact which corresponds in every way 
both to the musical reputation of FVanco of Cologne (of whom the Anonymus 
of the British Museum says that he was one of the final revisers of the 
mensural notation), and to the intellectual qualities implied l^ his high eccle- 
siastical position. Nevertheless, until the daim of John of Burgundy to the 
aathorahip of this treatise, supported as it is l^ Hieronymns of Mocavia, is 
disposed of by more direct evidence than we at present possess, a certain 
small degree of doubt must still remain with respect to the common and more 
probable opinion. It may be mentioned that two other treatises: TVoeteliif 
«|0 OMUDfiOfiliis M^tidOOmB (Omism. SeWpt. L 396), and Qusdam de AtU iMscxmtandt 
(Btb. Nat. Plaris, MS. 81 a) oopy from An Cainitu» MmmraMtB, but make no 
reference to its author. 

Mention should also be made of anoftier very important contemporary work — 
which is to be found perhaps in iU original form in Bib. Nat Fsris, MS. 813, 
with the title Jk ArU I>isoan«Bfid<— beginning with the words GinulmU bnvUai$ 
mwdsmi. The contents of this work have been reproduced more or less com- 
pletely in a considerable number of treatises — for instance in AbbnmaHOf Ac 
a lokmm dido BaUoee {Coum. 3oript. i. 39a), in TneMna ds Dkoantu (Ibid, 
i. ^3), in i>e CmtUn MsiwuroMK (Ibid. L 319), also in the treatise of Robert 



124 



METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 



figures^ defines notation as ^the representation of vocal sound 
regulated according to some one of the modes/ 

The modes differ slightly in number and arrangement in the 
various treatises^ but the most usual form of the system is as 
follows : — 



¥1nt {Trochee) . . ■ ■ 



■ « ■« ■« 



fleoond (lomdiif ) • ■ 



vri 



Third (Dadifi) . . ■ ■ « 



■ ■ « ■ « « 



Fourth {Anapaett) 



fifth (JfobMnia) . 



Sixth (Tribraek) . 



w w — 



w w 



A ■ ■ « « ■ 



&C. 



&C. 



&c. 



&c. 




op ^ P ^ P 

p o P ^ P ^ 



•*r 



r 



o*, o*, o 



<=>•» 



p G, G • 



G'^fO't o 



r r r r r r 



&C. 



^ 



&c. 



&C. 



&c. 



&C. 



de Handlo (Dnd. L 385), and in puts of the traatiBe of John Hanboys (Ibid, 
i. 405). In all these works the original, which must have been, apparentlj, 
of the same period as An OaiUiu M$naurabiU8t but a little earlier in aetoal date, 
is ascribed to 'Franco.' 

This fact formerly created a oonfnsion which is well seen in the fifteenth 
centnry treatise of John Hanboys. This writer evidently thought that An 
CaniuB MmuurdMlis and Oaudent breviiale, de„ were from the same hand, unoe 
the basis of his treatise, or mther commentary, consists of a oompoond of both 
works, the result however being always ascribed to ' Franco/ Tet the difference 
in style should akme have been sufficient to show that the aathor could not 
be the same in both cases, for whereas the style of An Oantus IfensumMw, 
is, as has been said, excellent, that of Qaudmt hnoitate, dtc., is dry, methodical, 
and less marked by literary quality. And we in fact now know that during 
the short period which represents the climax of the mensural system another 
Franco, Magister Franco Primus as he is called by the Anonymus of the 
British Museum but better known as Franco of Paris, lived and wrote con- 
temporaneously with the master of Cologne; if therefore Franco of Cologne 
wrote An CaniuB Menmmibili^ih. the treatise GiMudmt bnvitatB, de,, we may 
probably see the work upon which reste the fame of Franco of Psris. That they 
should have been often confounded need occasion no surprise j not only would 



DISC ANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 125 

The instnictiona which were necessary for the guidance of 
singers through the labyrinth of the mensural system were, 
with respect at all events to notes not in ligature, neither so 
numerous nor so complicated as might perhaps be supposed ; 
for the maintenance of one object as paramount throughout 
the process of regulation, the production that is to say of a 
continuous flow of rhythm upon a basis of equal measures 
each containing three beats or times, tended strongly towards 
the simplification of his task. In the production of this rhythm, 
and therefore in his choice between duple and triple, or duple 
and single values for notes of the same shape — or in other 
words, in his application of the principles of perfection or 
alteration to the written note — he was obliged, it is true, to 
consider somewhat carefully the notes immediately antecedent, 
and still more carefully those which were immediately to follow, 
but the various circumstances affecting his decision were easily 
classified, and were provided for in rules not difficult to re- 
member. This will be evident from the rules themselves, which 
are here given from the earliest treatises, with the original 
examples. 



Rules for the Long. 

Showing when it is to be considered as Perfect and valued 
as three, and when as Imperfect and valued as two. 

I. The long, when it is followed by another long, is to be 
valued as three; each vrill thus make up the full measure. 
Example : — 

the limUftritj of their names and datei of activity and their promiilgation 
of the nme doctrine tend towards such a result, bnt the fact also that their 
works represent very little that is original, and may rather perhaps be described 
as eiystallizations of the settled musical thonght of their age, mast have 
tended to invest them with so much of the character of abstractions that even 
in their own time both may well have been merged In one idea of supreme 
aathority. 



126 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



FIFTH RHYTHMIC HODB. 

{Molossus.) 



& 



^ — \ 



4 



X 



% 



< 



5 



4 



^t=4 



In Beth 



le • em. 



1 y JPl ^^ 


1 o , 1 


lo * 




-ra-. 










1 


"fSrflr^ 




_ii 


■ 




rj . 


« . 


€? . 


ra . 


"^H 


'jy^ 1 





















2. Followed by a single breve the long is to be valued as 
two ; the single breve will then complete the substance of the 
full note. Example: — 



FIRST RHYTHMIC MODE. 



{Trochee.) 



^ 




4 



5 



3 



era 


. ct 


cni - ci 


Do - mi - ni lans 


F^ 


1 


1 1 


1 1 

1 


1 I 

r-H 


W^ 


=^ 


\=^^=^ 


\ e> rj\ 


-^ ri II 



3. Preceded by a single breve the long is also to be valued 
as two; the breve again destroys the perfection of the long^ 
and itself completes the substance of the full note. Example : — 

SECOND RHYTHMIC MODE. 

Third subdivision. 
(Diiambus and Amphibrach,) 



^ 



4 



^ 



A 



< 



Diex ou por - m - je. 




1 r 



1 r 



T 



xa: 



-&- 



1 



'js: 



3 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



1^7 



4. Preceded or followed by either two or three breves^ or 
their equivalent^ the long is valued as three^ since either two 
or three breves will of themselves make up the value of a 
full note. Example of two breves interposed : — 

THIRD RHYTHMIC MODE. 

Second subdivision. 
{Dactyl and Choriambus.) 



t=5 



* 





bi - en %6 - ant. 



r 



■^ 



g 



-&- 



13i 



Example of three breves^ or their equivalent^ interposed : — 



t=^ 



^ 



% 




Ex - - i - mi - um 



de 



TJi 



r^ • 



m 



COM 

1 



f9- 



e 



■-W*- 



zz. 



i 



From the foregoing examples it will be evident that in the 
earlier period of discant the value of the long depended largely 
upon the nature of the mode actually in use at the moment, 
and also that in general the mode was easily distinguishable; 
but doubtful cases sometimes arose, in which it was uncertain 
whether an essentially ternary mode or one of the converted 
binary forms was intended, and in such cases a point or 
stroke of division, modi divisio, was employed to decide the 
question. In the following example, for instance, the four 
given notes might indicate either the choriambus — the first 



ia8 



METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 



ordo or aabdivision of the third or dactylic mode — or a tro- 
chee followed by an iambua; the point of division removes 
all doubt, and we see that each breve must be taken into the 
full note represented by the long nearest to it, leaving a 
value of two beats only for each long. 



1 


a 'I 


g 






■■ 


n 


a 


% 


i 








\ 


■ 


• 1 


n 




Ve . 


ni 


txtt 


. di . . 


Ye - ni tim 


. di 


T?? 


P=^ 


ra 




1 
— 1 


1 1 


1 




m 


^ • 


4— 






1 ^ r 


1 


— fl 



Rules for thb Breve. 

Showing when it is to be considered as Brevis recta and valued 
as one, and when as Brevis altera and valued as two. 

I. Two breves, between two longs, or between a pause ai\d 
a long, or between a long and the stroke or point of division, 
require alteration in order to make up the value of a full note ; 
in this case the second breve becomes brevis altera and is 
valued as two. Example: — 

THIBD BHTTHMIC MODS. 

Third aubdivision. 
[Double Dactyl and Choriamlnu.) 

■ ■ 1 ■ . 



F^ 



% 



4 



{ 






Ma . ri • 

1 


• a 


be 


• a - 


ta 
1 


ge - 


ne - trix. 
1 


' 


1 




1 


1/ 














Al 


, 














ffn 


1 


^\ • 








1 




vi; 




t^ 


^, 




^y 






^ CJ • 






^^ 


CJ 


<-^ . 


CJ 


,^^ 


C-» • 



2. Three breves, between two longs, &c., are not subject to 
alteration, since together they make up the value of a full note. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



129 



3. Four breves, between two longs, or between a pause and 
a long, are not subject to alteration, since the first three are 
grouped to make up the value of a full note, and the fourth 
is taken into the full note represented by the following long, 
which thus becomes imperfect. But four breves, between two 
longs, with a point or stroke of division between the second 
and third, fall under the rule for two breves; in each pair 
the second becomes brevii altera, to make up the value of 
a full note. Example: — 

FOURTH RHYTHMIC MODE. 

First subdivision. 
{Anapaest and Pyrrhic.) 



I 



t 



4 



4 






Ho - no • res 



mo - zes ma • tant ho 



mi - num. 



^ 



^ 



32L 



J± 



-O- 



4. live breves, between two longs, or between a pause and 
a long, require alteration ; the first three are grouped to make 
up the value of one full beat, and the fourth and fifth together 
— the fifth becoming brevie altera — make up the value of 
another. Example : — 

SECOND RHYTHMIC MODE. 

Fifth subdivision. 
{Diiambus.) 




4 



L*fta-tri - er 



m'es-ban - 01 



g 




a- 



g 



zs: 



WOOLORIOOS 



5 



e 



Q • 



139 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



Semibrevea also were subject to perfection^ counting three 
as the value of the breve; in general they followed the 
same rule as breves^ the senUbrevii nugor corresponding to 
the brevis altera, and the MemUrevU minor to the irevi$ 
recta; thus;— 



♦ i 44444 ♦^"♦♦♦♦^ 



3 



^^ 




^^^ 




The pauses {omiaeionee vocU reetae), which expressed in 
silence the values of the various notes^ were six in number* 
They were the pauea per/ecta, extending through three beats 
and answering to the perfect long; the pauea in^er/eeta, of 
two beats^ occupying the time of the imperfect long or the 
double breve; the pauea irevU, of one beat; and finally the 
pauses of the eemibrevU mqjor and eemibrevU minora occupy- 
ing two-thirds and one-third respectively of the single beat. 
The material signs by which these periods of rest were 
exhibited consisted of vertical strokes drawn in proportional 
length through the spaces of the stave; Utt^ pauea perfecta 
therefore occupied three spaces, the pauea imper/ecta two, the 
brevie recta one, the eemibrevis mqjor two-thirds, and the 
eemibrevis ndnor one-third of a space; the sign of the Jitm 
punciarum, or end of all things, corresponding to the modem 
double bar, was drawn through the whole stave. These signs 
were also used in a nonmensural sense, as strokes of division ; 
sometimes, as we have already seen, to warn the singer of 
a change of mode, and sometimes to indicate the group 
of notes which was to be sung to a particular word or 
syllable. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 131 



« 



The mensural system of pauses is commonly shown in 
the contemporary treatises in some such manner as the 
following :— 



JX 



TmuTT: 



Thus far our view of the work of the mensuralists has been 
directed chiefly to the proportional regulation of the notes 
which^ both in the ecclesiastical song and in the measured 
discanty represented single sounds adapted to single syllables 
of the text. We have now to consider the treatment of other 
notes^ also existing originally in the ecclesiastical song, of equal 
importance with the syllabic notes but devoted to a somewhat 
different puxposcy which were also adopted by the mensuralists 
and brought into regulation. These are the Jigurae or notes in 
ligature^ representing groups of sounds^ which form so charac- 
teristic a feature of the ancient melodies. 

The relation of these figures to the text in the ecclesiastical 
song was sometimes the same as that of the plain notes, each 
figure being then appropriated to a single syllable of ordinary 
duration, but sometimes also the syllable was extended through 
more than its natural length— often indeed for a considerable 
space of time — and the figures were grouped in greater number 
above it. With regard to their performance, it would appear 
that the ^^roe were, in their original use, far less subject to 
regulation than even the single notes, for these last were to 
some extent controlled by the rhythm of the words. It is 
true that the figure, when occupying the place of a single 
note, that is to say when placed above a single syllable, wnk 
to be executed as a whole within the time of that syllable, 
but the quantity of the notes composing it seems to have been 
exempt from rule; moreover, when the figures were grouped 
in greater numbers above an extended syllable the whole 
passage must have been practically uncontrolled, and the indi- 
vidual values of the notes must have been indefinable. 

K 2 



13% METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

Three examples may be giyen, showing the use of these 
figures in the ecclesiastical song; one demonstrates the 
syllabic, and the other two the free manner of employing 
them: — 



1 



iC3^ «] 'P'b. « a 



I^ 



Su - pra COB • U - ge • nu ae - ther - li om • net. 




Al-le«-----ln----i 



'3 j^ ■ . . t* ^^ 




tt===!:=s=p 



An - nun - d - an - tei 



Such then was the original office of the figures adopted by 
the earlier mensuralists to represent the fixed metrical rhythms 
which constituted the first r^ular melodic forms of discant* 
In their new employment their relation to the text remained 
the same as before; that is to say, they were still placed some- 
times singly above a syllable of ordinary duration and sometimes 
in greater number above an extended syllable, but their manner 
of performance was entirely altered ; their exquisite freedom, 
to which so much of the charm of the florid ecclesiastical 
eantus irdue, was necessarily abolished, and every ligature, 
and every note in a ligature, was made to receive a fixed 
time value, and a place in the new system of measurement 
in triple proportion. 

The principal figures, as they appear in the works of the 
mensuralists, with the neumes from which they were taken, and 
their later proportional value in modem notation, are here 
shown : — 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



133 



AscBHsnra FiouBn. 



PodatiM. 



^ 



Toreiiliii. 




^ 



BalicQi. 



■fw 



I 



J ^ n 



oT 



2 




DBBOBimiira Fioubsb. 



CliviB. 



yi 



IS 



zz: 



PorrectnB. 



yp 



n 



B 



r^ ^' 



CUmacnB. 



A 



K 



i 



19- 



zz 



In considering these figures^ it will be observed that in the 
cUvU, or old circumflex accent (acute to graye)^ as also in its 
two derivatives^ the cUmacus and the porrectus^ the original 
sign or neume b^ins with an upward stroke leading to the first 
note, and that the second note descends; while on the other 
hand in the podatus or anticircumflex (grave to acute), and its 
derivatives the salicus and torcuhu, the neume begins at once 
with the first note, ascending to the second. These charac- 
teristics are faithfully repeated in the corresponding mensural 
forms ; and from this circumstance arose apparently the generic 
qualification of these borrowed forms of ligature, which were 
said to be cum proprietate, or according to the model existing 
in the neimmtic notation. It will be observed further, from 
the translations in modem notes, that the figures here given 
are appropriated solely to the representation of those forms of 
rhythm in which the first note is short — the Iambic, that is to 
say, and the Anapaestic^; and from this circumstance doubt- 

* Tlwie remarlu refer to the settled or to-called Fnnoonian system of nota- 
tion. There was howeyer an earlier doctrine^ that of the DiacaiUuB PosUio 
VutgartB, and of Jean de Qarlande, acoording to which these Ugatores of three 
notes might be trained as long, breve, long, thos representing the first or 
Trochaic mode of rhythm; bat this doctrine had been given up by theorists 
before the time of Fianoo. 



134 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

less arose the mle^ Omnis ligaturae cum prqprietate brevis 
est prima. 

The entire appropriation of these figures by the Iambic and 
Anapaestic rhythms is somewhat remarkable if we consider the 
fact that the system here shown^ which includes the two great 
radical forms of ligature together with their main derivatives^ 
may be said^ from the mensuraUst's point of view^ practically 
to exhaust the resources of the neumatic notation. Whatever 
the reason for this particular appropriation may be, however, 
it is at present unknown to us, and we may pass on at once 
to consider a question of more practical character : What, in 
these circumstances, were the means employed for the repre- 
sentation of the Trochaic and Dactylic forms of rhythm, in 
which the first note was long ? 

Clearly, considering the wide difference which exists between 
forms in which the first note is short and those in which it is 
long, the remaining neumes offered nothing suitable to the 
purpose^ for with the exception of certain purely expressive 
and ornamental figures these were but extensions of the root- 
signs, representing a greater number of notes, and were unfit 
for the demonstration of forms of rhythm exactiy opposite 
in character to those which had already been appropriated to 
the principal figures. Two courses, however, were still open 
to the mensuralists, either of which might provide a method 
for the notation of these rhythms, and both were in fact 
adopted. One was the actual utilization of the figures just 
described, by means of an adroit shifting of the musical accent 
through the interposition of single notes or pauses ; the other 
was the appropriation of certain new ligatures — ^produced by 
means of an alteration of the original figures — already invented 
by the older mensuralists^ but used by them in a totally 
unsystematic manner. 

The principle followed by the older mensuralists in the 
invention of the ligatures which were now to be used for 
the purpose of expressing rhythms in which the first note 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



^55 



was long was a veiy simple one, and little more than the 
inversion of that which governed the adaptation of the original 
figures; for in the invented forms, if the ligature began 
with the stroke ascending to the first note, the second note 
moved upward, and if with the plain note, the note following 
descended; or in another point of view it may be said if the 
figure had at first a stroke upon the left it was now deprived 
of it, and if it was originally without a stroke it now received 
one. Hence the qualification applied to figures of this kind, 
which were said to be sine prqprietaie, because they contra- 
dicted the proper forms; hence also the final rule, Omnis 
ligctturae sine praprietate prima est hnga. 




These figures, in which the first note is an imperfect long, 
are evidently leas useful, and were in fact less used, than those 
borrowed directly from the ecclesiastical song. For it will 
be seen that, although all are suitable to the Trochaic 
measure, the ligatures of three notes cannot express the 
Dactylic, of which the first note, in the mensural system, is 
a perfect long. In the notation of the dactyl, therefore, the 
method which was mentioned above as alternative to the ap- 
propriation of the new figures, namely the adroit shifting of the 
musical accent -of the original forms, was adopted, and it 
may be said that even for the representation of the Trochaic 
rhythms the latter method was also most frequently in use. 

Our observations have probably established a sufficiently 
clear idea of the conditional value of the first note in ligature, 
but we may, before proceeding further,' shortly summarize them, 
and complete the subject with a few words respecting the final 
and intermediary notes. 



136 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

In all ligatures which begin with an ascending stroke the 
first note is short if the second descends {cum proprietate), 
but long if it proceeds upwards {sine proprietate) ; in those 
on the other hand which are without a stroke it is long if 
the second descends (nne proprietaie\ but short if it proceeds 
upward {cum proprietate). 

In imitation of the classification according to the position 
of their first notes these figures were also distinguished according 
to the position of their finals, and were said to be either cum 
perfeciUme or eine perfectUme. This perfection, which is not 
related to the perfection of the triple proportion, was ascribed 
to those figures in which the last note was placed either lower 
than the preceding note or perpendicularly abore it, while 
those which consisted of an oblique bar descending, or in 
which the final was placed in the ordinary manner above the 
preceding note were imperfect. In the examples just given 
above, therefore, all the ligatures are cum per/ecHone, except 
the first two of the second example. The effect of this 
distinction is very simple. In the figures cum perfectiane 
the last note was a long; in those sine per/ectione it was 
a breve. AH intermediary notes were breves, except in certain 
cases in which the semibreve was brought into ligature. 

It only remains therefore to speak of the figures by means of 
which the ligature of semibreves was expressed. Their distinguish- 
ing feature is the stroke proceeding upwards from the first note^ 
(L), and since this is the opposite treatment to that of the 

ligature ^with propriety' (P), the figures are said to be ^with 
opposite propriety.' In ligatures of two notes ^with opposite 
propriety' both are semibreves; in ligatures of three notes 
the first two are semibreves, and the last is valued either as 
a long or a breve, according to the rules for the perfection 
and imperfection of ligatures; in ligatures of four notes the 

^ 'Oppoeita proprietas est que habet a primo pnneto tractaxn aBoendentexn, 
rive ligatnra asoendat^ give desoendat/ TTotter Odingkm, (kmsae. Ser^t i. 343. 



DI8CANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



137 



three just mentioned are again valued in the same manner^ 
while the intermediate note is a breve \ The theorists seldom 
allow the ligature to extend beyond four notes, but in practice 
five and six notes together in one figure are sometimes f oimd ; 
in these cases, in the ligature of five uotes the former rules 
hold good for the first two notes and the final, while the 
intermediate notes may be either two breves or a third semi- 
breve and a breve, according to the circumstances; in ligatures 
of rix notes the first two and the final are again valued as 
usual, while the intermediate notes are a third semibreve 
and two breves. 



^ 




m 



•EL 



3 



?^ 




m 



ZZ 



^ 



^ 



za: 



t^ 



^^ 



l9 



EC 



We may now proceed to give examples displaying the best 
manner of expressing in ligatures the various modes of rhythm, 
according to the highest contemporary authorities; and in 
these most of the figures already given above, whether bor- 
rowed or invented, and both methods of employing them, will 
be found in use. 

' ' Opponta proprietas diuts fiidt semibrevesy qiuA una non ligatar, nee plnres 
qoAm doe. Unde si plnres evenerint luqtio ad dinsionem, tic flnnt; omnifl 
perfectao longa; impezfectio antem breTis; omnU yero media brevis, ezoepta 
ea que per oppoeitam proprietatem semibreTiatnr/ TFotter Odingbm^ Ooimm. 
Senfjie. i. 343. 

In the older notation, traces of which aoinetimes appear in the works of the 
theorists, the ' opposite propriety ' was applied to the ligature, not of semibreyes, 
but of breves. The Anonymns of the British Hnseom records the fact, and 
the rale itself is giyen by Jean de Qarlande. The Anonymns says :— ' Iterato 
fnenmt qnidun respidentes qood regale sapradicte non erant snfficientes, et 
posnernnt signnm proprietads opposite, at sopradictam est, .et dizerant qnod 
omnis flgora, com opposita proprietate et pezf edione, oltima longa et precedentes 
pro breri.' Ontfsa BoritA, i. 343. De Qarlande*s rale is as follows : — * Omnis 
ligatora cam proprietate opposita et perfecta, oltima est longa, et omnes pre- 
cedentes ponantnr pro brevi, si sint ibi plnres, sed si sint doe tantom non yalent 
nisi brerem.' Ibid. i. 100. 



138 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



FIRST RHYTHMIC MODS. 



Jbak DS Gablavdi. 



(Trochaic.) 




Fbavco ov Coiioavi. 




Wax^bb ODnroTOV. 




Here we find both methods^ the employment of mvented 
figures and the shifting of the accent of borrowed ones, recom- 
mended by these high authorities. The examples of the second 
mode, in which the first note is short, will show the accent 
restored to its original position. 



SECOND RHYTHMIC MODE. 



Fbavoo ov Coloovb. 



(Iambic.) 



t 



It 




.> ■ ^ 



&c. 



i 



m 



33: 



e 



f=^ 



T3 



:^ 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



»39 



WaXOIB ODDrOTOV. 




In the third mode^ in which the first note is long^ we are 
ahready prepared again to find the shifting of the accent. We 
may also notice the expedients resorted to by composers for 
the representation of the perfection of the initial note, which 
is placed out of ligature by Jean de Garlande, while by Walter 
Odington it is forced into juxtaposition with the following 
figure. 

THIRD RHTTHMIC MODE. 



JlAH Dl GjLBLian)!. 

^ 



(DaetyHcK) 




H 



A^ 



B 



3a: 



za: 



e 



.19-JL 



1 



■^ 



zazx 




? 



t 



<r 



i 



&c. 



32 



J3L 



^ 



ZZ 



Ac 



^ The oontenti of the figure ftre shown bj the upper htieket in this ezimple, 
the lower marks the rfajthm of the mode. The shifting of the eocent is thus 
mede eleerlj apparent. 



140 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



Waltbb Odtsqtov. 




These Anapaestic figures^ which by the aunple expedient of 
writing a perfect long at the bq^ning of the series are here 
made to express the Dactylic rhythm^ will now be seen restored 
to their proper position in the fourth mode, and bearing their 
proper accent. 

FOURTH RHYTHMIC MODE. 

(Anapaestic.) 



Jbak db Gaslandb. 





S: 



' P irr 



\ 



^ 



&C. 



p P 



-&- 



-frr-r 



S 



=za: 



&e. 



Fbakco ot Colookb. 




* This is an old form, afterwwds dinllowed, uied to expien the ligwtnre 
of two notes of the same sound. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



141 



The fifth mode was composed entirely of perfect longs 
divided into groups of three^ corresponding to the old rhythm 
of the Molossus, but was not expressible in ligature^, except 
by a licence which changed for the time being the value of 
the figures employed. Jean de Garlande gives an illustration 
of the only acceptable form, as follows : — 

FIFTH RHYTHMIC MODE. 

Jban ds Qablavdb*. 





The well-known figures were also used to express the sixth 
mode, which was composed entirely of breves, again divided into 
groups of three. They were made available by the simple 
device of adding a plica to the imperfect longs of the ligature, 
which were thus divided in half. 



* * Tehementer emmt qui tns longM aliqaA ooctcUnie com tenorilms inTioem 
ligint Frmoo, Ars OeuUuB Mifrntmima, c. z/ (Onciw. BeHpt, I laS.) 

' 'Hoc fit cauaa breTitatis. £t non psoprietate raniitiir ita, led nsu est, 
nt itft in tenorilms McipiAtor/ Ibid. i. loi. 



148 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



SIXTH BHTTHMIC MODB. 

JiAv sa Oaxuitsi. 



/ 



^t=iiS 



tt=^ 



U 



t 



A ' — ' — » A ' — ^ 



(ffl »i,]-jfpfjf i fif fi | |.fi^ i .,pf 



i 



V Ai 



H 



i 



^ 



JUs. 




w: g > r ^ > o 



^T I r r ^" I f° r p 



zz: 



Ac. 

In the foregoing escamples, most of which were taken from 
the Tenors of contemporary motetts^ we not only sufficiently 
perceive the method by which the figures of the neumatic 
notation were adapted to the representation of the modes of 
measured rhythm^ but we also obtain our first real glimpse 
of the kind of melody to which these modes gave rise ; and 
we find that, in spite of the somewhat rigid character of the 
new method — a method adopted not from any special con* 
sideration for the improvement of melody itself, — most of these 
short fragments are more than tolerable^ and some highly 
agreeable. This is not very surprising, perhaps, if we consider 
their origin^ for they are indeed for the most part adapted 
fragments of ecclesiastical song, in which^ since the original 
intervals have been carefully preserved, much of the former 
beauty is still to be perceived through the comparatively stiff 
disguise of the proportional rhythm. Yet it will be evident 
that, notwithstanding their pleasing qualities, the strict rhythmic 
modes could not, in the shape in which they are revealed in 
our examples, suffice for the purposes of composition. If these 
little passages^ for instance^ were extended, and continued in 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



U3 



the unbroken form which is characteristic of them^ they would 
soon cease to please; for except in dance music^ where the 
interest is sustained by a perception of the relation of each 
rhythmical unit to the larger rhythm of the strains^ the constant 
flow of one kind of mekniic figure must always in time become 
wearisome and cloying. And the existence of this possibility 
was in fact fully perceived^ and its nature perfectly well under^ 
stood^ by the mensuraUsts^ who in order to avoid it made 
use of two meanfr— the breaking up of the melody into broad 
phrases marked out by pauses, and the mixture of the modes. 

The first method we have already seen exhibited, in its most 
limited shape, in the example of the fifth rhythmic mode; 
in its more extended forms it somewhat resembles a division 
into strains, though without the perfect rq^ularity and balance 
of that process. This will be evident from the two following 
examples of Tenors, of which the first is from the motett 
Hide ut plactdi, by an unknown author, and the second from 
the motett O natio nephatidi^ ascribed to the author of the 
treatise DiscaiUuM Poriiio Vtdgaris ; both are in the fine MS. 
in the Library of the Faculty of Medicine at Montpellier^. 



zz 



I. 

Mode (jflcfatfaificqQ VIII. 
XoiranLUXB MS. Fint Bhythmio Mode. 




IE 



■^ 



3 



zz: 



f J I Q r^ 



-^ 



^ 



=a: 



m 



zc 



-Gf- 



22: 



3 



zz: 



m 



-& — L 



3 



^ 



-&- 



i 



^ 



ZZ 



zc 



zc 



^ f^ J 



zz: 



S 



ICE 



-&- 



m 



> M. de CoaMemaker*! VArt Harmmigpu aiix XTZ* at JTUl* Siklm ii mainly 
ea^oeitioii of (he content! of this Talnable MS. 



144 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



II. 



Mode fwelMtaiKean IL 



MOHTPILLIIB MS. 



Third Bhythmie Mode. 



e-a «»• 


l*^ n 1 


1 


h^^ 


1 


■ 


1 


FS=^ 



0) 



(») 



1 


-jO r^— 


1 




r 
1*0 • 


"^1 


r 


1 

— <® r3 


1 «3 • 


\r ^' \ 








J 




1 r ".-1 



(3) 



1 r 



a _- ^ — *• -■ * ^ 



(4) 



P 



i 



T ^ — ^1 



^^ 



-<^-i- 



■^^ 



3a: 



(5) 



CI • 




r — ^^ 


i'^ • 


■ 




^lO * 




h^o • 


h^ 




















1 



(6) 



iL 



to 



(0 



h^ 


14^==^ 


o • 


■ 


I rj > 1 [p — ^-\ 


o • 


^ fa 



C3) 



h^ 


=p=°^ 


h^ 


■ ■ 


Q * 


jTJ r;j 


_i5_2_ 


=P=°^ 


1=^ 



U) 



e 



zz: 



zz 



e 



g ' 1 P' e a 



-©— 



e 



zr 



■^i. 



g 



-»- 



(5) 



^^ 



E 



zzxizza 



-s> •^- 



zz: 



-&-^ 



(fi) 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



145 



lit 



zz 



Q . 



— €^ 



-^ 



TXi 



e 



3a: 



(I) 



(0 



e 



rry 



s 



zr 



-e^-a- 



e 



^j ' 



(3) 





■ ■ 


^ • 


-H—^- 


iTJ • 


f^ " 


^^ ■ 


» ■ ■ 


tp* 






1 




1 























(5) 



U) 



^^ • 


K^=^ 


[=s=] 


k^=^ 


-rr^ 


N=H 


rj • 


-^— s-^ 



r3 • 


■ 




1-^ " 


r- 


, 


-a • 


r^ • 


|. 






l-Q • 


t^=J 










" 



w 



It will be seen that the first example consists of a single 
strain of three phrases, two of which contain four measures 
and one five, the whole thrice repeated. The second and 
more extended example consists of three very long strains, of 
which the first and third contain fortjr-one measures each, and 
the second f ortjr-three ; these measures are grouped in each 
strain in three broad phrases of melody, excellent in themsdves 
and varied in a masterly manner. The idea of repetition also 
is already perceived ; the last strain opens with the first and 
second phrases of the first, and shortly after introduces the 
first and part of the second of the second strain. The compo- 
sition as a whole, rq^arded from our present point of view, may 
be said to reveal the existence of a system for the management 
of rhythm, upon an extended scale and apart from metrical 
words, which though as yet incomplete is in harmony with 
more modem ideas. 

The methods by which the second means of obtaining variety, 
the mixture of modes, was effected, were in theory two in 
number, of which the first and most decisive was the simple 



WOOLORIOQB 



146 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



juxtapofiitioii of rhythmical figures not belonging to the same 
mode^ and the second the omission of part of a figure and the 
substitution of an equivalent pause. 

With respect to the first of these methods it may be said 
that it presents no difficulty whatever; the examples which 
are given in the treatises in illustration of it are at once seen 
to effect the object proposed^ and from the compositions of the 
time we find that its application was universal. But the second 
method is exceedingly difficult to understand, owing to the 
apparent impossibility of reconciling the language of the 
theorists respecting it — ^if we are to understand them literally 
^-with anything that we know of the contemporary practical 
music. 

The theory is this. Pauses which express the value of the 
whole figure do not of course produce any effect upon the 
rhythm, but the omission of the long note in the first mode 
or of the short note in the second, and the insertion of equiva- 
lent pauses, are said to change the mode; the same result is 
obtained in the third mode by the omission of the long^t 
note, or in the fourth by the sacrifice of the two short ones. 
The change is sometimes said to be made by the omission of 
pauses ; the effect, however, is of course in either case the same, 
as wiU appear from the illustration. 



Mode with pauea debita at com- 
plete foot. 



Change by omission of put of 
pause. 



a a 



fn m fLj * m gJZIZ 



rs a a rj • a rj cj —n 



^^ 



f 



^^ 



rj gj Q rj ■ *. p. 



SE 



2 rj a ia 



^^^ 



:c£. 



7n . rj ra ■ (TJ o ei . 



xz 



EZZEZZZZZ 



. p Q 1 ■ , ra .-y 



? 



f 




? 



aZECZECX 



-Cj Q q: 



xz 



^ 



zz: 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 147 

The examples given by the author of Ar» Cantui Mensura^ 
bills in illustration of this theory are as follows : — 

FIRST MODE. 




[T . ^ <S» f^ 




Ma - ris stel - la f er - y&oB . 

SECOND MODE. 



JOl 



3 



jOL 



O Ma-ri-a Ma-ter De-i Flos OdorU 

Now it will be observed that in each of these fragments the 
passage which follows the pause presents, from its beginning 
with the initial value of another mode, the appearance of 
a change of mode, and yet that in both cases the original 
rhythm, if we count the pause, flows on without interruption $ 
we should therefore naturally conclude that the change here 
shown is rather apparent than real, for we have hitherto 
r^^arded the first and second modes as the converse of each 
other, and only to be alternated by a break in the rhythm* 
But the great theorist in giving these examples says distinctly 
and without qualification that the modes are changed by the 
pauses^, and he is supported by Jean de Garlande' and 
Walter Odington^ This is a somewhat embarrassing circum- 
stance, for it is evident that, if the mode of the passage ybren^ 

^ ' Et nota paosatioiiet mirabilem habere poteetatem : nam per ipow modi ad 
inTioem trantmntantor. . . . Unde si modiu primus, qui procedit ex longa, et 
brevi, et longa, pausam poet brevem longam habeat impeif ectam, variatnr modus 
in secundum. Si yero secundus pro Unga nota pausam fareTem assumat, variatur 
in primum/ An Comhu IfmsuroMZis, c. ix. *De pcauU, «t guomodo ptr ^mos modi 
ap invicem varianhur.' Coutae. Script i. ia6. 

' De Garlande, in his chapter De pamaHomfnu, divides pauses into perfect and 
imperfect, and defines them thus: — 'Perfecta dicitur ilia quando non ttans- 
mntat modum propter sui adventum, sed equalem preoedenti, quando adTcnit, 
representat. . . . Imperfecta dicitur ilia que transmutat modum propter sui 
adventum.' Ibid. i8i. 

' ' St hie modus (the second) sepe mutatur in primum impeif ectum, cum longa 
pausa aufertur, et primus [in secundum] impeifectum pausa brevi ablata.* Ibid. 
a39> 340. 

L 2 



148 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



shown above is really the second^ and the pause is to be valued 
as part of the rhythm^ then the second mode hegam, not as has 
hitherto been supposed with a strong beat, but like the Iambic 
rhythm of the Ambrosian hymns, for instance, with a weak 
beat. This is a consequence of considerable magnitude, and 
one which, if it were accepted, would throw the whole of the 
mensural system, as we understand it, into confusion, for if 
we turn to the practical music of the time, we find that the 
independent parts cannot be reduced to score upon any other 
understanding than that which is in fact definitely established 
by many passages in the treatises themsdves, namely that the 
first note, whether long or short, of the rhythmic figure falls 
in all modes upon the strong beat of the perf actio or ^ bar ^ of 
.three times. In the melodies of single parts also, written in 
obviously mixed modes and beginning with the figure of the 
second, it is impossible to find any sense if the initial note 
is taken upon a weak beat. To go no further for examples 
of this fact than the author of Ars Cantua MenguroKUs and 
de Garlande themselves, we may point to the fragments given 
by those writers as examples of the variation of the second 
mode by simple juxtaposition; here, if we are to assume 
a weak beat upon the first note of each bar in that mode, 
the passages marked with a star become unintelligible. 



FBAiroa 



SeoondMode. 



^' •*> r " I r^ ^ 



4t First Mode. 



i&- 



:q: 



32: 



■i&- 



js: 



io: 



JlAV DB OASIiAirDB. 

Second Mode. 



4t FintMode. 



22: 



m p "^ \r 



-&- 



m 



Second Mode. 

za: 



23: 



« FintMode. 



-^ 



^^ 



4k Second Mode. 
ZZ 



1^ 



ts- 



-^ 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



149 



We see therefore already some cause for doubt whether the 
language employed by the 'theorists with rq^ard to this method 
is to be taken quite literdly^ and with all the consequences 
which it implies; but there is still another point of view in 
which the subject may be regarded, which will afford an 
additional reason. The composers of this period were exceed- 
ingly careful of the natural accent of the words to which their 
music was set, and the strong and weak accents of the text 
were made, in the vast majority of cases, to correspond exactly 
to the musical mode of rhythm employed : yet if we look for 
a moment at Francois examples Maris »tella and Maria, 
we shall see that a weak beat upon the first note of the second 
mode would give fervAis and Mdrid tnatfr del, which is the 
reverse of the natural accent. The correspondence which 
actually existed in the music of this period between the accent 
of the words and the musical rhythm is illustrated in the 
following examples, and a glance at them will probably be 
sufficient to confirm us in our belief that the rhythmic figure 
of the second mode bq^ins, like those of all the others, with 
a strong beat^. 



FIRST MODE, 




PSIUDO-ABnTOTU.' 



S 



f" I g > r J 



Z2: 



rJ I « » f^ 



y^ - ni S^c -te 8pl - ri - ids ve - nf lux gril - ti - ie 



SECOND MODE. 



'Avomnnrs ov CAioiaAi/ 




^^ 



:T7t^17^7 



Ch< ■ont i - moa-rd - tet qui me 



U^n - Do&t sf 



' TheM ezunplet am from the oompotitiom given by M. de Couaemaker from 
the MoQtpeUier MS. in VArt Earmomiqm^ dc 



i5<^ 



METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 



THIRD MODE. 



Yi 



PiBOxnc.* 




s 



3z: 



3 



— u 



ICL 



^ZHI^ 



razz 



LVs - - Ut do mdiide 



^ 



<i> * — 


Nf^=^ 




h^=^ 


a • 



te - pi - - r^t cliis • con jofir. 



tI - - e 



FOURTH MODE. 




-nA 



12: 



£t mna moi 



e 






s 



-©- 



zz 



oo-xuent da - 



r^ . . Yoos' 



But although we may be said to have rejected the notion 
that the initial of the second mode can have been taken in 
the learned music upon the weak beat, we have still to reckon 
with the fact that the pause of transmutation, if counted in the 
rhythm, does actually throw the first note after the change 
upon that beat, and is in fact inconsistent with any other form 
of the second mode. And at present there appears to be only 



^ Having given the general role, which holds good for fifty of the fifty-one 
pieces talcen from the Montpellier MS., we are bound to mention the single 
exception. No. 24 in M. de Conssemaker*8 excerpts. This is a combination of 
two French songs supported by a ground or recurring phrase, all the voices 
beginning together upon the weak beat, proceeding by idtemate long and breve, 
and changing the mode in the manner referred to by the theoristB ; the accent of 
words and notes, however, agreeing perfectly. It is dear therefore that music 
corresponding, as regards the rhythm, to that supposed in Francois second 
example, did exist, and may even perhaps have existed in considerable quantity in 
popular and Troubadour music, for the rhythm is of course very old. But since 
its scarcity in compositions in parts is evident, we can hardly accept it as the 
second mode referred to by the theorists which would seem to be a regular and 
prevailing one ; at the most we should be disposed to regard it as an irregular 
form, suitable only for melody or for employment in parts unmixed with any 
other rhythm. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 151 

one way out of this difficulty^ namely to suppose that the pause 
is not counted. If the pause, notwithstanding its apparent 
time value, could be either regarded as a mere substitute for 
the stroke or point of division and as implying no cessation 
of sound, or understood as the equivalent of the pausa debita 
of the mode which represents the value of the foot of rhythm, 
not only should we then be able to reconcile our ori^al idea 
of the second mode with the plain statement of the theorists 
that the modes are altered by the pause, but the natural 
accents of the words, which are dislocated in almost all cases 
if we suppose a weak initial beat, will fall into their proper 
places in relation to the melody. 

This explanation of the matter, however, though it appears 
in fact to be the most probable one, does not remove all 
difficulty; for we must not lose sight of the fact that its 
acceptance would reduce the device of change of mode by signs 
of time-value to a mere theoretical trick, and we should be 
obliged to admit that the definite statements of the . learned 
writers have for once no real relation to practice, and that the 
mirabitis potestas of the pause, perceived by the author of 
Ars Cantus MensurabiliSj is as purely imaginary as the m3rstical 
significance of the ternary number. 

But returning from this long digression, we have to consider 
for a moment, before passing from the subject of rhythm, 
a few more characteristic examples of interchange of mode. 
In those of the third and fourth modes which here follow, 
from Jean de Garlande, we may notice that though the trans- 
mutation is again independent of the given pause, the applica- 
tion of the pause as part of the rhythm raises no difficult 
questions such as have just been discussed in the case of 
the first and second modes. This is due to the fact that the 
pauses which are here said to effect the transmutation cannot 
give rise to a weak beat upon the beginning of either figure; 
for the complete figures of the third and fourth modes are 
spread in each case over two ^perfections' or bars of three 



»5» 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



times, each perfection b^inning of course with a strong beat ; 
and^ since the change cuts the figure in half^ the note next 
following the change must necessarily b^pn upon the strong 
beat of a perfection. 



J BAH DB QaBLAJIDB. 



r 



m 



e 



1 r 



1 r 



^h-^ 



sx. 



-&- 



g 



g * 



rjk I 



T r 



T r 



^ 


^;^ 


a • ■ 


r "" 


^s.^ 


— 1. 

1 fj g>-i 


ra • ■] 



1 


1 
1 


1 


1 ■■ ■- 

f fa ■•■ 


I 


1 


E^ 



jBAir DB OABLAimB. 



-<Wi 1 — « — 


1 


1 
— P «=^— 


^1 


1 ■ — 


1 


^ rJ — '^'— 




-^ 




* * 


LJl * 



1 « 1 ♦ r 



e 



1 r 



iq: 



zz 



EC 



a 



zz: 



zr 



3 



iq: 



r ■ 


1 


I — 

a • — 1 


... ^' 1 


I 


1 — 75 — " — 1 


1 

O • 11 




• 




4 


u • 


-F 


h=l 



The next example is a mixture of the first four modes, but 
since it begins and ends with the figure of tbe thirds it is 
given as a variant of that mode by de Gariande : — 



n r 



ww^ r-^9 ^ — P . 1 ° • — ,. o 


"si* rj • [.- 1 1 — 1 1- f 


" J-* — ' — " • r — ^-^ — ' — f-* ^ 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 153 



f-f^ — ^ — 


• 


1 

1 Z3 


I 

G^.! 


1 ■ 


r-l^ ^ 


M 




—ri — "^ — 









The building up of the method here described was the 
subject of a continuous effort extending apparently from 
the b^inning of the twelfth century to the second half 
of the thirteenth, and carried on both in France and 
England, but chiefly in France, and at first especially by 
the musicians of Paris. Its earliest theoretical traces are 
to be found in two anonymous treatises, Discantus Positio 
VtJgaris already referred to above, and De Musicd Libettus, 
now in the Bibliothlque Nationale at Paris (MS. 6286), 
both of which probably date from the second half of the 
twelfth century. The method as it is displayed in these 
treatises is imperfect and elementary, but we are informed 
by a later writer, the Anonymus of the British Museum 
(Royal MSS.}, whose historical sketches of this period 
constitute one of the most interesting features of his 
work, that more complete rules, relating both to notation 
and to the perfection and imperfection of longs and breves 
and the values of ligatures, were to be deduced from the 
compositions of Leo, or L^nin, chief musician as it is supposed 
of Notre Dame in Paris, contained in a great repertory of 
organum upon the Gradual and Antiphonary which was for 
many years preserved in. the choir library of that cathedral; 
and these rules, we are also told, were again apparent, 
abbreviated and simplified, in the adaptations and compositions 
of Lenin's successor P^rotin, preserved in the same collection^. 



* ' Gognito modnlAtioiie melonuD, Mcundiun yiam octo tropomin, et Mcnndiim 
uiun et oonsaetndixiein fidd oftthoUoe, naoc hithendpin ert de meneiim eommdem, 
iecondum longitadinem et brevitetem, pront intiqni trac U ve n mt, lit magister 
Leo et alii plorimi pleniiis inzta oidines et oolores eomiideiii ordiiiaTenmt. . . . 
Ifta regola utnntiir in plmilnu librii aotiqaoniiD, et hoc a parte et in rao 
tempore Perotini Magni; led needebant nanan ipow com qoiboadam aliis 
puetpoaitie, et aemper a tempore Leonie pro parte, qnoniam doe ligate tunc 



154 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

From this period onward improTement seems to have been 
rapid ; the advance may be observed in the treatises of Jean 
de Garlande and of Pseudo-Aristotle^ both belonging to the 
beginning of the following century, and is seen to culminate 
in Ar9 Cantus Mensurabilis and the works of the Anonymus 
of the British Museum and of Walter Odington, which may 



temporis pro brevi longa ponebmtiir, et trei ligate timili modo in plnribvu locis 
pro longa bravi, &c. 

'Et note qnod magister LeoninnB, lecandam qnod dioebatnr, fait optimos 
Organifta, qni fecit magnnm libmm organi de Gndali et Antiphonario pro 
servitio divino multipUcando; et fait in ora oaqoe ad tempoi Perotini Magni, 
qai abbreviayit eamdem, et fecit cUoBolai sive poncta ploiima melioia, qooniam 
optimal discantor eiat, et melior qaam Leoninoa eiat, ftc. . . .' 

The author then ennmeratee lome of Perotin's own compotitioiifl, and con- 
tinnes : 'Liber vel libri Magistri Perotini erant in nin naqne ad tempos Magistri 
Boberti de Sabilone. et in choro Beate VirginiB Maioris eccleeie Parisiis, et 
a sno temporo naqoe in hodiemnm diem, simili modo, ftc., proat Petnu notator 
optimnBy et lohannes dictos Primarios, cam qaibosdam aliis, in maiori parte 
uaqne in tempos Magistri Franoonis Primi et alterios Magistri Franoonis de 
Colonia, qui inoeperant in sois libris aliter pro parte notare; qoa de cansa 
alias regolas proprias snis libris appropriatas tradiderant. . . . Abbreviatio 
erat facta per signa materialia a tempore Perotini Magni, et param ante, 
et breyios dooebant; et adhoc brevios Magistri Boberti de Sabilone, qoamTis 
spadoae docebat, sed nimis deliciose fedt mebs canendo apparere« Qoa de 
cansa fait Talde laodandos Birisios, sicot fait Magister Petros Trothon, 
Aorelianis (sie), in canto pUmo, sed de consideraiaone temporom parom nihil 
sciebat ant dooebat; sed Magister Bobertos sopradictos optime ea oognosoebat 
et fldeliter dooebat. Post ipsom, ex docomento sno, fait Magister Petros, 
optimos notator, et nimis fldeliter libros sooe, secondom osom et consoetodinem 
magistri soi, et melios notabat. Ex temporo illo fait qoi vocabator Thomas 
de Sancto loliano, Ptaisios antiqoos; sed nan notabat ad modnm illorom, 
sed bonos fait secondom antiqoiores. Qoidam vero foit alios Anglicos, et 
habebat modom Anglicanom notandi, et etiam in qoadam parte dooendi. Post 
ipeos et temporo soo foit qoidam lohannes sopradictos, et continoavit modos 
omniom sapradictorom, osqoe ad tempos Magistri Franoonis, com qaibosdam 
aliis magistris, sicot Magister Theobaldos Gallicos, et Magister Simon de SacaUa, 
com qoodam Magistro de Borgondia, ac etiam qoodam Probo de Picardia coios 
nomen erat lohannes le Faoooner. Boni cantoros erant in Anglia, et valde 
deliciose canebant, sicot Magister lohannes Alios Dei ; sicot Makeblite apod 
Wynoestriam, et Blakesmit in coria domini regis Henrid oltimi.' (Henry III.) 
ObtcM0. Script i. 54a and 344. 

The 'ftc.' which occors so freqoently in this MS. is to be acooonted for by the 
apparent fact that the treatise was delivered in the form of lectores; it woold 
seem that at the '&c.* the aothor abandoned the MS. for a time, and soppUed 
comments and explanations extempore. 



DISC ANT OR MEASURED MUSIC J55 

be grouped between the yean 1250 and 1320 ^ As might 

' It will be noticed that the aceoimt here given of the mensural theorists 
differs oonsiderably from that hitherto reodTed; the order of snooession indeed, 
in the groap, remains mnch the same as before, but the group itself has been 
transposed to a period some sixty or seventy years later. This change is doe 
to a consideration of the important facts brought forward by M. de Conssemaker 
(from M. Gatien-Aznoolty in the Sevue de TduUmae, 1866), in the introduction to 
the third vdlame of his Scriptomm, Ae,, in 1869, respecting Jean de Garlands. 
Formerly this author was supposed to be identical with one GerUmdus, canon 
of Besan^on about the middle of the twelfth century, but the identification 
rested on no better evidence than the approximate similarity of the name. 
M. Gatien-Amoult however introduces us to a new personage, whose name 
is not approximately but exactly similar to that of the writer on music, and 
whose residence was chiefly in Fturis, the centre of musical life. The Jean 
de Garlande of this account was an Englishman, and a student of Oxford, 
and must have been bom about the year 1190. His English surname, if he 
possessed one, leems to be unknown ; that by which be is actually distinguished 
dates from the period of his migration to Fturis (about laio), and is derivod 
from the place in which be there lived and teught, the Cha di Oariande, 
afterwards Rtt$ OaOatids. It is not known whether he ever returned to England ; 
we are told only that in iai8 he took up his abode in the University of 
Toulouse, and that his. venture not succeeding be returned to Ftois in 1253, 
and was still living there in 1345. It is true that tins account does not 
actually connect ito subject, who is known as a grammarian and poet, with the 
authorship of any work on music, and that the identity therefore of the 
Parisian teacher, and the author of the fimious tieatiM De Jfusioa KenswrabUi 
Potitio still remains only probable ; yet considering the principal drcumstanoes, — 
the exact similarity of name^ and the residence in Ftais during a period of 
the highest musical activity, — the probalnlity is considereble. Accepting this 
identification then as a guide to the date of de GarUmde's treatire, it will 
appear that this might have been written, roughly speaking, at any time 
between the yean laio and 1250; but since ito doctrine, though in the main 
agreeing with the settled form, still retains a strong archaic tinge, the work 
cannot be veiy Ht removed from the twelfth century, and may therefore date 
from the period of de GarUmde's first residence in Ftois, that is to say not 
later than I3i8. From this date we obtain the others given above in the 
text. The similarity between the methods revealed in the TradahiM de Muaiea 
of Paeudo- Aristotle with those of de Gariande fixes the date of that treatiM 
as oontomporaiy with his, while the settled and authoritative character of 
the teaching wnt^'if^ in An Caniue MenmnrabOie, a character which could 
hardly have been developed in less than thirty yean, suggesto 1350 or there- 
abouta for the date of that work, and also for that of the treatise, so often 
copied and quoted by later writon as by 'Franco,' beginning QoMdemi hrevUate 
modemL i^uandoeunq^ pyneiua quadrahUf &c. (see note to p. X33). If that 
date be accepted the Anooymus of the British Museum (Royal MSS,)« who 
mentions the names of the two Francos, but none later, and who must therefore 
be almost if not quite a contemporaiy of those writen, may have written his 
admirable work about 1360. Odington*s date is already approximately fixed, 
since we know that be was still living in Oxford in 1516. 



156 METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 

be Buppofled, the line of progress was in the direction of 
simplicity, both in the signs themselves — and especially as 
rqpurds the ligatures — and in their application to the ex- 
pression of the current riiythms. In the earlier periods, for 
instance, writers endeavoured to make the same ligature 
applicable to various modes of rhythm, and even as late as 
the time of Jean de Ghirlande and the Pseudo-Aristotle the 
triple ligature with propriety and perfection was used to 
express both the Anapaestic and Trochaic forms; in Ars 
Cantua Men$wrabili», however, and in the treatise of Walter 
Odington, we find this practice severely blamed ; and it appears 
as a final rule that the value of the ligature must be constant, 
depending no longer upon the mode but entirely upon the 
shape of the figure itself, which in future is only to be used 
for the expression of those rhythms to which its settled value 
is applicable. 



II 



THE MUTUAL RELATIONS OP THE INDIVIDUAL VOICES. 

The period with which we are at present engaged is marked, 
as r^;ards the relations of the voices considered in their com- 
posite character, by several occurrences not less striking and 
important than those which we have seen afiEecting their 
conduct when considered separately. Chief among these is 
the revision of the theory of consonance and dissonance^ by 
which this was brought into accordance with the practical 
methods of the artistic music. 

We have already seen that the artistic music may be said 
to have formerly yielded something to theory in its practical 
rule, gradually evolved, of excluding dissonance from a position 
upon the strong beat of the rhythm: it was now the turn 
of theory to make concessions, and to admit to a position 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 157, 

upon the strong beat, and therefore among the consonances, 
intervals which had hitherto, from the beginning of things, 
been reckoned as dissonant. 

The first of these intervals to be admitted were the major 
and minor third. Probably a practical demand for their 
admission, shown in a tendency during the transitional period 
to employ them upon the strong beat — as for instance in 
our example Custodi nos, at p. 113 — already existed, but our 
knowledge of the practical work of this period is so small 
that this cannot be afiBnned with certainty. As rq^ards the 
fact itself of their admission, for which we must of course 
look to the learned writers, we find that the earliest existing 
treatise, IXscantus Positio Vulgarii, makes no mention of 
it^, and from this we may perhaps conclude that about 
the middle of the twelfth century, which is the probable 
date of this treatise, the position of the thirds was at all 
events still doubtful ; in the little treatise De Musica Libettus, 
however, now in the Biblioth^ue Nationale at Paris (MS. 
6286), a work which cannot be much if at all later than 
1180, and therefore not far removed in date from Discanina 
Positio Vulgaris, we find the thirds definitely admitted among 
the consonances. ^It is to be observed,' says this author, 
^that the unison and octave are perfect consonances; the 
mqfor and minor third imperfecta the fourth and fifth inter- 
mediated' It would seem probable therefore that at some 
time during the second halt of the twelfth century, between 
the dates of these two treatises, the practical employment 



' The Tiew of this author is singnlarly vnsystsinatio, and in this respect 
differs equally from that of his predeoetsors and of his snooeuors. He says: 
' Inter oonoordantias antem tres snnt ceteris melioresy scilicet nniionns, diapente, 
et diapason. Ceteri veto modi magis snnt disionantie qnam oonsonantie; tamen 
secnndnm magis et minns, nnde maior Tidetor distonantia in tono^ qnam in aliqno 
alio Dodo.* Onmm. Script, i. 98. 

' 'Kotandnm est, qnod nnisonns et diapason sunt consonance perfecte; 
diiomu 9i mmi d iUm u § mmt in^^ftd$; dittesisron, et di^wnte dieontnr medio.' 
Ibid. 38a. 



158 METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 

of the third as a oonaonance began to be accepted by theory 
as poBsibly^ even if not demonstrably, reasonable. It is evident 
however that these intervals were not admitted without quali- 
fication, and that a real and important difference between 
them and the classical concords was still seen to exist, and 
was strongly insisted upon; for in order to recdve them the 
theory was recast, and the great distinction between perfect 
and imperfect consonance, which still prevails in our own 
day, was invented. 

The theoretical divisbn of consonance into three species, 
invented probably, as has been said, for the purpose of 
justifying an incorrigible practice, is set forth, with all the 
parade of scientific accuracy which distinguishes the more 
voluminous theorists, by Jean de Gbrlande ^ ; and his account 
is practically repeated in substance in Ars Cantus Mengura* 
bilis, which displays the settied and authoritative system of 
the middle of the thirteenth century. The author of the 
latter work, however, adds some further distmctions: — ^^The 
unison is more concordant than the octave, tHe minor third 
than the major third, and the fifth than the n^urth. Also, 
both the perfect and intermediate species of consonance are 
more concordant than the imperfect V 

A change also took place at this time in the theoretical 

> 'GonoQtdantiamm triplex ert modm, quia qnedam simt peifecte, qnedam 
imperfecte, qnedam vero medie. Perfects didtar, qnando doe voces mnguntiir 
in eodem tempore, ita quod una, lecandnm anditnm, non perdpitnr ab alia 
propter ooncordantiam, et didtar equiBonantiay nt in unitono et diapaeon. 
Imperfecte autem dienntor, qnando due vooes innguntur ita, quod una ex 
toto perdpitur ab alia lecnndum anditum et conoordantiam ; et sunt due 
spedes, idlioet ditonus et semiditonus. Medie autem dicuntur, quando due 
voces iunguntor in eodem tempore, que neque dicuntur peifecte neque imper- 
fecte; sed partim oonveniunt cum perfectis et partim cum imperfectis; et sunt 
due spedes, sdlioet diapente et diatessaron. Sic apparet quod sex sunt spedes 
oonoordantie, sdlioet, unisonus, diapason, diapente, diatessaron, semiditonus, 
ditonus. Et dicuntur genera generalissima omnium ooncordantiarunL* Cbusss. 
Script i. 104. 

' ' Conooordantiarum quedam perfecte, ut unisonus qui fit una litten^ et dia- 
pason; quedam impeifecte, ut semiditonus et ditonus; quedam vero medie ut 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 159 

position of the major and minor sixth. These intervals, 
though not as yet perceived as consonant, were now no 
longer classed with the intolerable dissonances, — such as the 
second, the tritone, and the seventh, which were only allowed 
as passing notes not affecting the discant, — but were recog* 
nized as not disagreeable to the ear, and fit to be employed 
independently, provided that they were supported on both 
sides by consonance, and placed moreover in a situation 
in which they would attract little attention and be lightly 
passed over, that is to say upon the weak time of the per- 
fection, or beat of three times. In order to express this 
view the theorists invented a division of the dissonances 
corresponding to that already employed for the consonances. 
That of Jean de Garlande, for instance, is again triple, and 
again displays perfect, imperfect, and intermediate dq^rees^; 
while the author of Ars Cantu» MensurabiUs is content with 
two divisions, combining the perfect of de Garknde with 
the intermediate'. From these writers we gather that the 



diapente yqI diatoMtitm. Hanim omninin oonoordAntiftnim, prima oonoordat 
meUu qiiAm uoeandM, nt nniioniiA meliiu qoani diapMon, et aemiditoniis qoani 
ditoniu, et diapente qoani diatefMuon. Item perfecta oonoordantia meliiu oon- 
oordat qiiam imperfecta ; media melini oonoordat qnam imperfecta oonoordantia.' 
OwMS. SeripL i. 136. 

^ ' DifCOfdantiurom qnedam dioimtnr perfecte, qnedam impeifecte, qnedam 
Tero medie. Perfeete dicnntnr, qnando doe vocee non iongontor aliqao modo 
■econdum oompanionem Toonm, ita qnod, aecnndum anditom ana non point 
oompati com alia. Et iste rant tres speciee, icilioet eemitoniam, tritonna, ditonna 
com diapente. Imperfecte dicontor, qnando dne Tooes inngontor ita, qnod lecnn- 
dun anditom Tel postnnt aliqao modo oompati, tamen non oonoordant. Et sunt 
doe fpeciea, icilioet tonoi com diapente et lemiditonoa cam diapente. . . . Medie 
dieontnry qoando doe vooei iongontor ita, qood partim conTeniont com perf ectis, 
partim com imperfectit. Et iite rant doe ipeciei, icilicet tonoa et lemitoniom 
com diapente/ Ibid. 105. 

' The aothor, after hii deicription of the oonoordi, oontinnei: 'Omnei 
alio oonionantie dicontor diicordantie ; qoarom diioordantiaram alio lont 
perfeete, alio impeif eete. Feif eete vero diicordantie non ponont lami in aliqno 
diicanto; et rant qoatoor; lemitoninm, tritonosy ditonoi com diapente, lemi- 
toninm com diapente. Imperfecte Tero poirant lomi in aliqao diicanto, et 
hoc eit ante peifectam oonoordantiam immediate rabieqaentem ; et rant trei 
(lie), idlioet tonoi com diapente, lemiditonoi com diapente.' Ibid. 156. 



i6o METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 

introduction of the change was gradual^ and that while at 
first the major sixth belonged to the order of imperfect or 
tolerable dissonances^ the minor sixth was still regarded as 
impossible. Other writers, however, go further in the direction 
of concession. The Anonymus of the library of S. JUi, 
whose treatise is of the Franconian period, brings the major 
sixth into consonance ^. ^ The imperfect consonances/ he says, 
^are the major and minor third, good between fifth and 
fifth, or in coming from fifth to unison, or the reverse, 
and the major sixth which is good before an octave/ 
Finally, the Anonymus of the Biblioth^ue Nationale, /onds 
Latin, 14741, smiting in the old French vernacular before 
the close of the thirteenth century', and the Anonymus 
of the British Museum (Royal MSS.)% belonging to the 
same period, both bring the minor sixth also into the con- 
sonant genus, classing it of course with the major interval 
in the imperfect species. 

This important change in the theoretical rules of discant, 
might very well be ascribed, even entirely, to a general 
recognition of the pleasant sound of the intervals of the 
third and sixth, gradually revealed by experiment with both 
voices and instruments; and in any case the improvement 
must have been largely due to such means. But a special 
cause has of late been suggested as preponderant, and deserves 
examination. 

In this most recent view, put forward by Dr. Hugo 



^ * Imperf ecte mint ditoniis et ■emiditonYu, que sont bone Teniendo a diapente 
in diapente, Tel a diapente ad nnuonnm, efc e oonTeno, et tonna cum diapente, que 
eit bona ante diapaaon.' Gmmm. Script i. 31 a. 

' 'Et ne doilt on point faire ne dire ii qointee ne deolx donblet, I'nne aprte 
rantre, ne monter ne descendre ayec sa tenenr, car ila sont parfais; mais par 
aoooTB imparfaiB, Hercea et sbeteB, pent on bien monter on deecendre ii on iii notes 
on pins ce besoing est, mats qne oe soit snr notes appendans/ &c. Ibid. iii. 497. 
The progression of oonsecntive sixths in conjunct movement (appendans) of course 
proves that both the major and minor intervals are now indnded in the author's 
' acoors impaifius.* 



» Ibid. i. 358. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC i6i 

Riemann^^ the change was due to the influence of the English 
practice, and more especially of those native popular methods 
of part-singing in this country, of which some account was 
given by Giraldus de Barri in the twelfth century, in his 
Cambriae Description Notwithstanding the vagueness of the 
account given by Giraldus (the only author by whom any 
reference to the popular part-singing is made). Dr. Riemann 
feels justified in assuming as probable that the English 
methods consisted in uniform progressions of thirds and 
sixths. He bases this assumption chiefly upon the fact 
that the English are known to have been at a later period 
actually in possession of such methods, peculiar to them- 
selves; and he sees in these later methods — ^in the Gymel 
or two-part organizing in thirds, and in the Faulxbordon or 
three-part organizing in tl)irds and sixths, with which we 
first make acquaintance in the works of Chilston, Leonel 
Power, and Gidielmus Monachus, all writing towards the 
close of the fourteenth century — the survival or continua- 
tion of the methods described by Giraldus. These early 
methods then, which it is assumed consisted of progres- 
sions of thirds and sixths, becoming known in France, 
are supposed to have powerfully affected the artistic dis- 
cant, the chief seat of which was in France, and especially 
in Paris. 

It would be pleasant no doubt to us in England to think 
that elements of harmonic beauty of so much importance 
as these were supplied to music by the native instinct of 
our forefathers; but for that very reason, if for no other, 
we are bound to inquire carefully into the character of the 
evidence on which the hypothesis rests. What in fact do 
we actually gather from the account given by Giraldus? 
The usual method, he tells us, of popular singing in Britain, 
as elsewhere, was in unison; but two special and exceptional 

* QmhUhU dir MugiklhMrU (m UC-JTUT. Jahrhundtrt, Leipiig, 1898. 

WOOLDBIOOS M 



i6a METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



kinds of treatment existed amongst us^ one in Wales and 
the other in Northmnberland. Speaking of the Wdsh^ he 
says: 'In their musical songs they do not utter the tunes 
uniformly^ as is usual elsewhere, but manifoldly, and in 
many manners and many notes; so that in a multitude of 
singers, such as it is the custom of this people to bring 
together, as many songs are to be heard as there are singers 
to be seen, and a various diversity of parts, finally coming 
t<^ether in one consonance and organic melody under the 
smooth sweetness of B flat^/ Two conclusions may safely 
be drawn from this account; first, that these performances 
were conducted in the scales of F or G with the B flat, 
and second, that the partHunging can have had nothing to 
do with either Gymel or Faulxbordon, and must have been 
allied rather to the old attempts to extemporize discant 
in many parts than to the methods of uniform progression 
which are proper to organizing. The Northumbrian practice, 
on the other hand, consisted in a distinct two-part song, 
which may therefore possibly have borne some relation to 
the later Gymel ; but the account unfortunately gives no 
information with respect to the intervals employed, nor even 
informs us whether they were mixed or uniform. Giraldus 
says only that the performance consisted of 'not more than 
two differences of tone or varieties of pitch in the voices, 
one murmuring the lower part, the other the upper, in a 
manner at once soothing and delightful'.' The only special 
reference to the use of thirds in England is in the treatise 

ft 

^ ' In mnsico modnlftmine non nnif ormiter at alibi, sed multiplidter multisqike 
modis et moduliB cantilenas emittnnt, adeo at in torba canentiam, flicat haic 
genti moB est, qaot videas capita tot aadiaa carmina, discriminaqoe vocam varia, 
in anam deniqoe lab B mollia dalcedine blanda conaonantiam et oiganicam 
convenientia melodiam.* Cambriae Deaerip^, cap. ziii. 

' *In borealibas qooqoe maioris Britanniae partibas trans Hambnim, £bo> 
taciqae finibas Angloram popali qoi partes illas inhabitant simili eanendo 
symphonica atontar barmonia; binis tamen solammodo tononun differentiis et 
▼ocum modalando yarietatibas, ana inferios sabmormarante altera Tero sapeme 
demnloente pariter et delectante.* Ibid. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 163 

of the AnonymuB of the British Museum (Royal MSS.)^ 
written at the end of the thuiieenth century^ which mentions 
that they were allowed in the sense of concords by the 
best musicians of several countries, and among others by 
some of the English ' organists ^ ^ ; the fact however is there 
connected, not with the Northumbrian song, but with the 
artistic practice of the West of England, and it is difficult to 
connect this with the methods described by Giraldus. Indeed 
it may be said that no known documents exist which can 
with any show of probability associate the use of thirds and 
sixths with the popular practice, or which represent it as 
at any time exclusively English. 

Considering then the difficulty at present of tracing the 
origin of Gtymel and Faulxbordon in the English popidar 
practice of the twelfth century, and considering also the 
fact that neither the Anonymus just quoted, nor Jean de 
Garlande, nor Walter Odington, aD of whom were English- 
men, or were at all events well acquainted with the methods 
of this country, make any mention of oiur supposed habit at 
this period of organiziog in thirds and sixths — ^though in 
view of the new use of these intervals in French discant 
mention of such a practice, had it existed, would seem to 
be not inappropriate, — ^we must as yet hold it at least 
doubtful whether our country can really lay claim to any 
special share in the introduction of thirds and sixths among 
the musical concords. 

The appearance of the new intervals of discant was neces- 
sarily accompanied by new rules for the movement of the 
individual voices; and these, like the intervals themselves, 
were introduced gradually. Their final form is perhaps best 
displayed in the short statement of the Anonymus of the 

^ * DitoniiB et aemiditoniiA apad aUquoi non sic (i. e. pro oonoordantiis imper- 
fectifl) repataninr. Tunen apad organittas optimoa, et prcmt in quilmadam 
tenis, ricat in Anglia, in patria qae dicitor Weatcnntre, optime oonoordantie 
dicnntor, qaoniam apnd tales magia sont in nsa.' Couue, Scrijpt L 358. 

M 2 



i64 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

Biblioth^ue Nationale \ in his little treatise in the old French 
vernacular already referred to, a work which may profitably 
be compared with the older vernacular statement of rules, in 
the same library, printed by de Coussemaker in his Hisioire 
tie PHarmonie au Moyen Age^ and described at p. 87 of the 
present volume. Both treatises belong rather to the practical 
than to the theoretical side of musical literature, consisting 
in fact of not much more than authoritative directions with 
respect to the best method of composing in two parts; and 
a comparison reveals very clearly the extent of the enlarge- 
ment of musical resources which resulted from the introduction 
of thirds and sixths. 

The author of the later treatise gives at the outset special 
rules for the treatment of the new intervals: 'The minor 
third,' he says, 'requires the unison after it, the major third 
the fifth, the minor sixth the fifth, and the major sixth 
the octave.' It is worthy of remark that the imperfect 
character of the new consonances is clearly indicated in 
these regulations with respect to their progression, which 
is already perceived as limited by a certain natural insuffi- 
ciency in the intervals themselves which requires their pas- 
sage to a perfect consonance, and by an inherent tendency 
moreover to resolve into perfect consonance in one direction 
rather than in another. Thus the major third and major 
sixth are seen as tending to an 'outward' resolution, while 
the minor third and minor sixth proceed most naturally in 
the opposite direction. 



i 



«: 



Z2: 



zz: 



22: 



jcc 



B 



221 



But the natural progression of the imperfect consonances 
may be delayed by a parallel movement of the voices, con- 
tinuing the interval, provided that the movement be conjunct, 

^ GaMfM. 8eripL iii.497. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



^65 



and not continued for more than three notes. This indeed 
is the only kind of parallel movement now permitted^ that 
of perfect consonances being expressly forbidden in this 
treatise ^. It is not improbable therefore that^ in the new allow- 
ance, we may see the later equivalent of the permission to 
move in parallel fifths which was accorded by the older discant ' 
when the persistent conjunct movement of the tenor in a given 
direction rendered a continuance of contrary motion impos- 
sible. It will be remembered, for instance, that upon a tenor 
proceeding upwards by degrees the old method requires the 
foUowing progression: 




TX 



-&- 



Now in the case here shown the temptation to come to A 
in the discant upon the tenor F, and thus to continue the 
contrary movement, must have been considerable, and experi- 
ment would soon reveal the agreeable effect, not only of this 
progression, but also of the continuance of thirds in parallel 
movement instead of the old fifths. And this treatment is 
in fact commonly enjoined in the work which we are at present 
considering ; for instance : — ' If the tenor ascends four degrees 
then it must be accompanied by (a) octave, fifth, third, unison, 
in a dosing passage, and (&) octave, fifth or (c) third, followed 
by two thirds, if the passage continues ; ^ thus : — 



(fl) 



(b) 



(c) 



^ 



-e^ 



•^ 



-G^ 



js: 



-€^ 



zz 



•&- 



-^- 



22: 



W 



1 
33: 



8 



3 



8 



3 



32: 



"JCL 



-&- 



zz 



jCZ 



zs: 



* See note on fiolM cygwiuIaM, p. i6a 



* See p. 87. 



i66 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



A possibly later form of treatment introduces the sixth : — 




8 



m 



zc 



-^- 



zz: 



ZE 



In descending passages these methods were practically reversed : — 



f Q 1 


Opening 

Q 


pungee. 




















ifrf 


^ 


® 




^ 




^^ 






^ 






— d—j 


irn^ ! 


»- 


— 1 




ft 
in 


« 


« 


8 


6 


8 

-rz — 


3 


6 


6 

[— F3 


3 


6 


8 


i^_ 




-^ — 


a 


—&— 






— =^ 


U.J 




-^ — 




GH- 






1 


-H^ 


Middle pungei 
9 


1. 

I 














"^W^Tw? 


t=^= 


o 


f-^ 


O 










— ^M 


mm 






■■T3" - 




1 


*/ *> 


« 


6 


e 


8 


3 


3 


3 


s 


e 


8 


6 


8 


M^ 


« — 










[-CI 


^ 




1 


^^i>- 








— rj 






— ^ 


TT- 








<o 


• 




1 










■--^ 






.^ -n 


Q rj 


-.-» ru 


j-D "^ '^ '^ 11 






^,— ^ 


^3 


r!3 


.*-v 






c* *■* II 


^ 




i\ 


3 


ft 


3 


6 


3 


8 


6 


8 


3 

r-T3 


6 


6 




8 




c^ 


-O 




— ^_ 


Ci 


&- 








a 




^9— H 


— . i 




i« 



These examples show that discant was, at the time when 
they were written, already approaching very nearly to the 
condition of plain counterpoint; and we may even find in 
the instructions given for the treatment of notes not in con- 
junct movement indications almost of a foresight of harmony. 
The instructions for the accompaniment of the melodic interval 
of the fourth, for instance, are most remarkable. ^ If the tenor 
falls a fourth, the discant, if it has a third for the first note, 
takes by preference a fifth in similar movement instead of 
an ascent to the octave (a). Also, if the tenor rises a fourth. 



DISGAJfT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



X67 



it is better that the discant, if it has a tenth for the first note, 
should rise to the octave rather than fall a third to the fifth {by 




m 



(a) Good. 




-^ 



Z2r 



zz 



22: 



TT. 



-^ 



22: 



Kot sogood. 
33: 



Z2 



-&- 



zz: 



zz: 



zr 



■^ 



m 



m 





(h) Good. 



3a: 



I 



za: 



:^ 



f^ Q 



-^ 



zz 



Not 80 good. 



zz 



<9- 



-o- 



zc 



Id 



'^^ 



is: 



zz 



zx 



1 



Here apparently the harmonic view of the authentic and 
plagal cadences is clearly indicated. 

It should be added that although the date of this method 
is perhaps most suitably placed about the close of the thirteenth 
century, its principles appear to be somewhat in advance of 
those which prevail in the compositions of that period so far 
as we know them, and we may perhaps therefore suppose that 
the practice which it represents is not so much that of the 
learned musicians as that of the extempore discanters of the 
time. Innovation and experiment, indeed, were marked cha- 
racteristics of the extempore practice throughout the earlier 
polyphonic period, and many improvements derived from the 
suggestions of this practice were, after due observation of 
their effect, adopted and incorporated in the orthodox system 
of music. We may suppose therefore, from a comparison of 
this method with the written compositions of the time, that 
the close of the century found several existing improvements still 
unaccepted by the theorists; the learned writers remaining gener- 
ally unconvinced of the merit of progressions containing parallel 



i68 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

imperfect intervals^ and at the same time dimnclined to give up 
the parallel perfect intervals which had been hitherto freely used^ 
and which were indeed strongly characteristic of their system. 

Having now described the various means developed by 
musicians during the early mensural period^ we may proceed 
to consider the method of their application in the production 
of an artistic result. This method^ in its general aspect, was 
exceedingly simple^ and may be described in a few words. 
The elements of measured composition were still the same as 
those of Organum^ a given subject, or Tenor, and a discant 
upon it; but not only was the subject now measured, but 
it also displayed a strongly rhythmical character, due to its 
complete arrangement in some one of the recognized metrical 
modes. The discant also was conducted entirely in a metrical 
mode, though not necessarily that of the subject, and was 
governed in its relations with the subject chiefly by one 
rule, namely, that in all modes, at the beginning or strong 
beat of each measure or 'perfection,^ the voices must be in 
consonance^. No rule was given for the weak beats, which 
might be either in consonance or not', but from the works 
of the best composers of this time we find that consonance 
was in fact usually preferred throughout. 

Probably the most striking and characteristic, though not 
actually the most enduring, feature of this method is the 
system of metrical modes, controlling both subject and discant, 
and imparting a special and unvarying character to the music. 
An account of these formulae and of thdr influence upon 

^ 'Item inteUigendiuh ett qaod in omnibos modiB ntendum est semper oon- 
cordantiis in principio peif ectionis, licet sit bnga^ brevis, vel semibieTis/ An 
Canius M«n$wrcMUs (Otmsse. Script, i. 13a). 

' ' Omnia panota imparia primi modi (first note, third, fifth, &c.) snnt longa 
et cnm tenore conoordare debent. Reliqnia yero paria indifferenter ponnntur.' 
Anon., B. M. (Royal MSS.)> Couase. Script, i. 356. 

It shoold however be mentioned that, from the compositions themselves, we 
find that the obligation of consonance was only enforced, in the dactylic and 
anapaestic rhythms, at the be^nning of alternate peif ections, that is to say at 
the beginning of each foot of metre. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



169 



notation has already been given at some length in this 
work, and the important part which they played in the 
general coDstruction of mensurable melody was then probably 
sufficiently demonstrated. It is indeed evident, both from 
the treatises and from the compositions themselves^ that no 
other method of arranging musical sounds was considered 
as strictly proper to the system of the thirteenth century^ 
and that these rhythmical figures in fact constituted^ during 
this periodj the actual foundation and vital form of the work. 
It may be well therefore, before proceeding to examples of 
composition, to devote a short space to the consideration 
of the most usual combinations of the modes, arising out of 
their simidtaneous employment by two voices in discant. 
The examples here given are taken from the treatise of 
Jean de Garlande, where a long and profusely illustrated 
chapter is devoted to the subject. 

TROCHEE AND IAMBUS. 
2n4 Mode. 



S 



i 



1S? — o- 



t 



^^^ 



zz 



i& — &- 



ZZ 




istMode. 



&C. 



i 



^^ 



zz 



zz 



3 



-^ 



-Gf- 



zz: 



■O" 




irt Mode. 



TROCHEE AND DACTYL. 



3 



s 



i 



1 



^ 



-&- 



^# 



3TdMode. 



SC 



o . I- 



^ . I 






%/ %J 



ZZ 



i 



3 



1 



•> 



1 



i 



^ 



"T 



33: 



-O- 



The dittoiMuwe of the leoond upon the itrong betA» to which attenUon 



170 



METHOD OP MUSICAL AIlT 



TROCHEE AND MOL08SUS. 



lit Mode. 



^ 



r\n ^1'' r\'' n^ rl 



iq: 




SthHode. 



&c. 



^ 



TT 



~&- 



IOl 



-^-^ 



TROCHEE AND TRIBRACH. 




6th Mode. 



ii!_g_l r^ (° rM [° f^ f' I fi °J I r r^ r 



## 



ist Mode. 



i 



■jo: 



z± 



x± 






c/ c/ 



fa* • ■— ^ 



^ f - * rJ 



^^ 



gy * 



3 



Ifl 



la: 



1 



-©- 



-^ 



IAMBUS AND DACTYL. 



and Mode. 




I 



-&- 



?2=^ 



J ^^ I J ^ U, ^-^^ 



-^- 



## 



3rd Mode. 



&C. 



S 



g 



^ 



zz 



-^- 



^ 







< g ' 'f - 



< Q * I r> I^ 



IAMBUS AND ANAPAEST. 



^ 



2nd Mode. 



^ 



r^ ''ir 



Q c» 



-<9- 



-©- 



■^ 



<9- 



Q < g 



ezzx 




4th Mode. 



Ac. 



J r j I Q > ^B 



3 



T-'TT 



i 



-«>- 



■^-^ 



-©- 



■^- 



Z3: 



iB here drawn, will be met with again ooeasionally in theie examples; it was 
inserted deliberately for the sake of ornament {po>iM'\ and always takes this 
form of a kind of appoggiaiara 'proceediog to the note itself with which it is 
discordant. 



DISC ANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 171 



IAMBUS AND MOLOSSUS. 



and Mode. 






3 



rs ^ 



i 



3 a 



-©- 



%/ */ 



zz: 



5th Mode. 




32: 



22: 



-^- 



3 



^ 



zz: 



-&- 



-&- 



Ac. 



rj * 



a 



IAMBUS AND TRIBRACH. 



6th Mode. 




^ 



J >J «) I P f 



1S- 



-t 



f ^ P f J 



rir ^^ r 



and Mode. 



^^ 



3 



3 



g 



tzzx 



ISL 






%J %J 



■«* 



ZZ 



zz: 



r r rir r^ rj^ 



&a 



3 



^ 



g 



3a: 



DACTYL AND ANAPAEST. 



BidMode. 




-^ r 



-^ s- 



i 



ZZ 



Q ' 



3 



4th Mode. 




3 



J ^ I 



S. 



e 



i7a 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



^ 



22: 



-& r 



^ 



iq: 



Q . i o' Q 




^ 



■^ 



g > * 



zz: 



e 



-G- 



^ 



-^ r 



is: 



■« r 



ftc 



3 



-«- 



Q » 



DACTYL AND MOLOSSUS. 



3rd Mode. 




Q . 



^ 



-^- 



^^^=^ 



^^ 



-^- 



5th Mode. 




■^^-r 



g» • 



3ar 



-& — r 



-<S>— r 



^ id 



=^=?=F 



-^ 



lo: 



-e^ 



■JCL 



Q ' 



ftc 



-O r 



-© — r 



33: 



DACTYL AND TRIBRACH. 



6ihMode. 




A J|j J gJ|f^ ^ J | J =;^ 



-jO — 1^- 



§ 



3rd Mode. 




n 



T3l 



22: 



ir ^ 



■o- 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



173 



r f° I ^J '^ rJ I J J J 4=^ 



p fj 



^ 



1&- 



!©- 



^a: 



^ 



22: 



<s^ 



^=F^ 



33: 



221 



ZZ 



f - * fg rJ|r f - * ^\rl d A 



^^ 



«» — & 



32: 



^=^ 



< g . 



-JTZ. 



=^=F 



is: 



lEE 



ANAPAEST AND MOLOSSUS. 



4tliHod0. 




r ^ I '*' 



■^ 



t»- 



zx 



I Q ' I f - ' Q =Fi^;= 



Z2: 



-^-nr 



5th Mode. 



Ac. 




•^"TZZ 



-o-^ 



■^-^ 



zr 



:^-r 



ANAPAEST AND TRIBRACH. 



6th Mode. 




f^r' f^U J ^ ^ 



j]{A~A-(^ 



tS — lO — 1» 



4th Mode. 



## 



g 



g 



3 







XZ 



a ' 



zz 



(#) 



J rJ Jlrj rJ «> |J J J 



-© 2_ 



3 



237 



e 



&C. 



-«- 



174 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



MOLOSSUS AKD TBIBBACH. 



6th If ode. 




°J >J ^ i r r-Mr r~rrp f^ f i -j ^i-g 



32: 



:dc 



3 



za: 



1^ 



^^ 



g 



.^ 



^ 



-^ 



-©- 



22: 



These examples not only provide us with excellent types 
of rhythmical mixture, but they also enable us already to 
form some practical idea of the kind of part-writing which 
is characteristic of the early mensural period. In its method 
this is seen as exceedingly weak and tentative, deficient in 
resource, and embarrassed by the rigour of its essential con- 
ditions; while in its effect it is perceived as harsh, empty, 
and harmonically pointless. The strength and excellence of 
the composer, in fact, is still chiefly shown in the melodies 
of the individual voices, which are alwajrs easy and flowing, 
and sometimes, as in many of de Garlande's examples of 
the sixth metrical mode, as good as it is possible for simple 
music in strict rhjrthm to be. Before we quit the thirteenth 
century, however, we shall witness, in our examples, some 
approach towards that striking improvement in part-writing 
for which the rules last quoted in this work have already 
prepared us; the feeble passages in unison will in a great 
measure disappear, imperfect concords will be found to be 



DISC ANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 175 

largely employed^ and a notion of the sense and coherence 
which arise from harmonic relations will even be seen as 
dawning upon the minds of composers. Yet even in the 
later examples it will appear that artistic invention was still 
unable to deal exhaustively with the actual means at its 
command. The struggle towards an enlargement of the 
capacity of the governing material^ the struggle which is 
characteristic of all arts during their periods of growth^ had 
been necessarily rewarded by an increase of power which 
extended far beyond the immediate needs of the artist^ and 
by the creation of a field of effort of which only a very small 
part could at first be at all perceived. It should not surprise 
us therefore to find that^ although most of the resources which 
belong to the first two orders of counterpoint were now at 
the disposal of the musician^ and although a double cantus 
in which both voices might move in complete liberty^ yet in 
perfect obedience to law, was in fact within his means, he 
still renounced the free exercise of the imagination, and for 
a long time remained content — except in dealing with two 
special forms of composition in one of which an. ancient method 
was continued — ^with an almost mechanical construction of 
the upper voice parts upon the basis of material arranged 
throughout in a predetermined strict rhythmical shape. 

Ill 
Forms of Composition 

Although the various special forms of composition proper 
to this period may at first sight appear more numerous than 
might have been expected, it will be found upon examination 
difficult to assert that any were superfluous. It will be seen 
that each corresponded to some need arising either from the 
popular or the ecclesiastical use of music, or displayed some 
special aptitude of the art considered in its purely technical 
aspect; and since the aims of all are reproduced more or lest 



176 METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 

exactly in the music of later times, it must be assumed 
that all were healthy and indeed necessary elements in the 
first work of development. 

These various forms may be classified in the following 
manner : — 

(a) C!ompositions in which all the parts have the same 

words. Such are Organum communUer sum^ 
ptum, the Cantilena, and the Rondel or Rota. 

(b) Compositions in which each part has its own special 

words. Such is the Motett. 

(c) Compositions in which not all the parts have words. 

Such are the Hoquet or Ochetue, the Conductus, and 
Organum Purum vel proprie sumptum ^. 

Not all these forms were of equal antiquity : Organum 
Purum was older than the rest, and may therefore now 
be first examined. 

The great age and authority of Organum Purum, which 
was in all probability the survival of an old method of florid 
discant in free rhjrthm and extempore upon the long notes 
of the plainsong, may perhaps partly account for the respect 
in which it was held by the authors of the thirteenth century 
treatises, for these writers apparently considered it as still 
the most noble and beautiful kind of music. Their opinion, 
however, was no doubt largely justified by the merits of the 
method, for the freedom which was its chief characteristic, 
in whatever degree it may have been present in the com- 
position, implies the existence of beauties which in the 
regular style were impossible, and must in itself have possessed 

^ * DiBcantiif aatem fit cam litten, aat sine et com littera, hoc est dupUciter : 
com eadem vel cam diveniB. Com eadem littera fit ducantos in cantilexiii. 
rondellis, et canta aliqno ecdesiastioo. Com diyenis UtteriB fit diBcantns, at in 
motetis qni habent triplom vel tenorem, qaia tenor coidam Uttere eqoipoUet. 
Com Uttom et sine fit diacantas in condactis et diflcantu aliqao eoeleaiastioo qai 
proprie (improprU is wrongly given in the text) oiganam appeUfttor.' An CantHs 
MenBurab&is, cap. zi; Ooums. Script i. 130. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 177 

an ine&ble charm for ears too much accustomed to repeti- 
tions of the well-known metres in fixed measurement 

Of the method itself unfortunately no absolutely clear or 
complete account can yet be given. This fact, however^ is 
not due to any actual scarcity of information, for at least 
three writers of the first rank — ^the Anonymus of the British 
Museum (Royal MSS.), the author of Ars Canius MensurabUU, 
and Walter Odington — ^have taken the matter in hand^ all 
of course being abundantly informed and not less clear than 
usual in statement ; our difficulty therefore arises from no fault 
of the authorities, but from the fact that their discussions deal 
with the method in certain aspects only^ and that they were 
addressed to a public already well acquainted with the process 
in question; the points not touched upon could then be filled 
in from the knowledge of the reader^ while the allusions to 
practice also would be well understood^ and would in fact 
be little more than direct appeals to experience. For us how- 
ever^ possessing no antecedent knowledge, the accounts given 
in the treatises, even when illustrated by the compositions now 
at our disposal^ are not quite sufficient; so that while some 
of the essential features of the method stand out clearly 
enough, others, also of conmderable importance^ remain in 
obscurity and can only be guessed at. 

The free Organum (jproprie mmptwn) was generally con- 
trasted by the theorists with an Oiganum of another kind, 
already referred to in our classification, called Organum com^ 
muniter sumpttan, a form of the current strict music. More- 
over it would seem that at different times the contrast was 
perceived from slightly different points of view ; for while the 
early writers regard the opposed forms for the most part in 
their relation to the metrical modes^ the later men take note 
chiefly of their position with regard to the mensural system. 

In the first point of view the essential distinction between 
the two kinds of Organum resides in the regularity or irregu- 
larity of their rhythmical forms ; the strict species oiganizing 

WOOLDSIOOB N 



178 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

in some recognized mode^ the free not ao. From the description 
for instance of the strict species^ given in Discanhu Poritio 
VtUgariB, the oldest treatise upon measured music which we 
possess, it would appear that the chief characteristic of that 
species was the purity of its metrical character, and for this reason 
no doubt it is called pure Organum by the author^. The actual 
contrast however between this Organum and the free species 
is not demonstrated in Diseanius Posiiio VtUffaria, though no 
doubt it is intended to be inferred. We are only told with 
respect to the latter — which is apparently identical with the 
form here called Organum dag^lex — that it was a twofold 
discant in which the melody, in relation to the lower voice^ 
was diverse and consonant ; that the pauses corresponded, 
but that the notes did not,' because the long notes of the 
tenor were protracted'. The last sentence contains an im- 
portant piece of information with respect to the method. 

In the treatise of Jean de Garlande the rhythmical test is 
strongly insisted upon, and the contrast between the two kinds 
of Organum is well displayed in the names which he assigns 
to them— r^c^ni and turn rectum. 'All organum,^ he says 
in effect, 'is sung in some mode, either regular {rectu»)y by 
which is meant one of those in which discant is sung, or 
irr^ular {non rectus), that is to say a mode in which the 
rhythmical figures are not strictly taken. Longs and breves 
are strictly taken in the first regular mode (as in the strict 
Organum), but though they may also sometimes be taken 
in an irregular mode in the same way as in the first 
mode it is not strictly, but in a casual manner. Whatever 



^ 'Pare Organum est quando cnilibet note de piano canta^ ultra mensnram 
ezistentif correepondent de diacantn due note, louga wnlioet et bievis, vel lus aliqnid 
eqaipollens.' Ctausse. 8ar^, i. 96. From this it appears that the plaUuong waa 
nttered in notes of eqnal length (tutae uUra nunawram are here perfect longs), and 
the organnm chiefly in the first mode of rhythm, long and hreve. 

' ' Dnplez organmn est idem in paosiB, non antem in notLs, eo qnod dncte longe 
sunt in tenore. In discantu vero duplex, et a prime diversns ooosomuia cantos/ 
lUd. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 179 

9 

then is sting in an irregular rhythm is called Orffanum non 
rectum *.' 

The Anonymus of the British Museum (Royal MSS.) a writer 
of the Franconian period^ but a strongly conservative theorist^ 
adopts^ as we should expect, the view of Jean de Garlande; 
and in fact a large portion of the concluding chapter of his 
treatise is devoted to a description of the irregular modes, 
seven in number exclusive of variants, in one or other of 
which the upper part of the free organum — Organum purum 
as it was now called — ^was usually cast* One or two of these 
are intelligible, and the first is even to be recognized in 
a known composition of the time ' ; as regards the rest^ how- 
ever^ it is unfortunately impossible at present to arrive at any 
decision with respect to the exact nature of the melodic figures 
which the author intended to describe ; for his meaning is 
never illustrated by noted examples, and is moreover conveyed 
in this part of his work in special language of a highly technical 
character, to which at present we have no complete key. 

During the latter half of the thirteenth century, the period 
which must now apparently be recognized as Franconian, 
Oxganum, as has been said^ was perceived chiefly in its rela- 
tion to the mensural system. The contrast in this point of 
view between its two kinds is exhibited^ though somewhat 
confusedly^ in Jrs Cantus MensurabUis, the representative 
treatise of this period, in the chapter upon the various species 
of measurable music. 'Measurable music,^ says the author, 

* ' Organvm per m didtor id eue qnidquid prof ertar ieonndam aliquem modam 
Teetam, aat non nctom. Bectna modns sunitnr hie ille per qnem difoantof 
profertor. Non rectne didtnr ad diif erentiam alicoiiu recte ; que longe et lireTee 
recte ramnntar debito modo primo, et prindpaliter. In non recto Tero ramitor 
longs et tarerii in primo modo^ led ex contingent. Organum antem non rectom 
didtor qnidqnid profertor per non reotam mensnram/ Omims. 8ar^ i. 114. 

* 'Duplex longa,/ « coninnctim,/ d oonionctim, e e, d /, gfeam plica^ d e cmn 
pUoa, a dnplex longa com e oooinnctim; et irte modns didtor primna irregnlaria, 
et bene competit organo pnro.* Coume, Script i. 361. The illnitiation is quoted 
bj Anonjmut as from tlie triple Organum AUduia PotnU Adhttoriwm, and will be 
found there in the middle vdce part, near the end of the MMuia. The oompontion 
baa been printed by H. de Ck>ussemaker in L'Art Harmonique, 4c.^ 1865. 

N 2 



i8o METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

'iB measured either purely or in part. Music purely measured 
is discanty because discant is measured throughout; music 
partly measured is Organum, because Organum is not measured 
throughout* Organum is taken in two wnyB,prcprie and com" 
muniier. Organum prcprie sumptum is the same as Orgamtm 
duphmiy which is also called Organum jmrum ; Organum eon^ 
mumter sun^tum, on the other hand^ is some ecclesiastical 
song measured in time^.' From this it would appear that, 
notwithstanding the author's formal distinction, the latter 
species of Organimi should properly belong to discant; the 
main point however^ the difference between measured and 
partly measured Organum^ is sufficiently made out. 

Walter Odington speaks of Organum purum only. ^ There 
is/ he says^ 'one kind of organic song in which alone the 
object is the putting together of immeasurable voice parts; 
it is called Organum purum, and this kind is the oldest^ and 
is in two parts only*.' Simon Tunstede also^ a writer of the 
fourteenth century^ discusses the subject once more; he again 
draws the distinction^ upon the mensural basis, between the 
two kinds of Organum, but he copies in this matter from Ars 
CanHu MensurabilU, and adds little of his own that is of value. 

Organum purum, then^ appears as an unique and exceedingly 
ancient form of composition, dating evidentiy from a period 
antecedent to the institution not only of fixed time rules, but 
even of settied metrical rhythm in music. The freedom which 
it thus inherited is suffidentiy declared in a general manner 
in the passages just quoted^ but the extent of that freedom 

^ ' DiTiditur satexn mensiirabilii mniioa in mensnxabilem dinplidter et ptrdm. 
HeniuiabiliB liinpliciter ert diieantnsy eo quod in omni parte nut menrantiir. 
Fftrtim menrorabiliB dicitnr argtOLxan, pro tanto quod non in qnalibet parte sua 
menBoratar. Et adendom qaod organnm dnpliciter smnitor^ proprie et com- 
mtmiter. Eat enim organum proprie anrnptom organum duplum^ quod purom 
organum appellatur. Gommuniter vero dicitur organum quUibet cantua eodaaia- 
stioua tempore meninratna.* Cou§m, Script. L Ii8. 

' ' Eat autem unum genua cantua organioi in quo tantnm attenditur ooherentia 
vooum immenaurabiliunit et Oiganum purum appellatur; et hoc genua anti- 
quiBiimum eati et duorum tantum.' lUd. i. 245. 



DISCANT OR MEASITRED MUSIC 



x8i 



and the nature of the particular methods of its manifestation 
during the mensural period are nowhere completely revealed. 
By a consideration^ however^ of the available examples in 
notation^ and of the rules and comments of the treatise 
writers^ we n\ay perhaps arrive at a fairly adequate view of 
the main features of the system. 

We may begin with Odington^s description of the method 
of composition. ^A few notes of plainsong being taken as 
the theme or Tenor^ they are arranged in some mode, and 
the upper part is made to proceed by concords and the less 
discordant discords at pleasure. The upper part beg^s upon 
the octave fifth or fourth above the Tenor, and ends in the 
octave fifth or unison ^.^ This is very indefinite, and might 
serve equally well for a description of discant but for the 
example, which is as follows: — 





^ 



^ 



This example, by its obvious disrq^rd of mensural equiva- 
lence between the parts, at once reveals its freedom from the 
prevailing rules of proportion ; for it is evident that the upper 
part contains a far greater number of notes than could be 
rqplarly disposed above three double longs. Some allowance 
therefore must have been made, and one of the parts, if not 
both, must have been composed in view of a special under- 
standing with respect to the method of performance. 

* * Fit igitar orgairain param hoc modo ; looepto ono ponotOy vel dnoboB aat 
tribw de phno anta (the text of the MS. it not quite the Mune here, bat the-aenae 
doei not difler)f oerto modo diiponitiir tenor, et saperioB prooeditor per eonooidiae 
et ooooofdee diioordiaa qniatnmlibet. Indpit antem raperior centne in difcpMon 
•apm tenore^ Tel diapente vel difttewwiTon, et deiinit in diftpMon vel diapente reH 
iiniMOO.' CbiMM. Sehjpi. t 216. 



i8a METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

What was the nature of this understanding ? Since meaaure 
was not here applied to both parts together^ as in discanty 
can it have been applied to one or the other alone, entirely 
or partially? 

With respect to the Tenor we may at once perhaps safely 
conclude that the duration of its long sounds was not fixed 
according to any measure of time, but was governed entirely 
by the conduct of the upper part. This, as we shall see, is 
apparentiy asserted by Jean de Garlande, for instance, and 
in Ar$ Cantua MenmrabiUs, and it may also perhaps be im- 
plied in the expression ductae longae, used with respect to 
the tenor notes by the author of Disamtua Positio Vutgarii. 
Moreover, while this course presented few difficulties, the 
inverse process would have been practically impossible. We 
have seen that if an upper part such as this of Odington^s 
example were measured, it could not be fitted to three 
measured double longs ; but it may also be remarked that 
a similar failure must occur if the upper part were free, owing 
to the insurmountable difficulty of adjusting long unmeasured 
passages, of various lengths, to equal notes of fixed duration. 
With an unmeasured Tenor, on the other hand, holding a 
single long note during the continuance of the passage in the 
upper voice, no difficulty, whether the upper part were measured 
or free, would occur ; for the actual limits of the florid 
passages were well defined, the dose of each being indicated 
in the written composition either by a consonant note not 
in ligature or by a pause following a consonant note either 
in or out of ligature, and in performance (as there is some 
reason to think) by a certain slackening of the pace upon 
the penultimate note; and by these means among others, the 
Tenor, whether singing from score or not would, with practice, 
easily be able to perceive the points at which it might be 
necessary for him to relinquish any note of his part and to 
move to the next, without mensural agreement^. 

' Jean de Churlaiide, after deiorilnzig the natare of the organal pert from the 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 183 

The remaining drcumstances which decided the movement 
of the lower voice are not all clearly eacplained, but perhaps 
it will not be rash to assume that^ while the Tenor generally 
held his note until the end of a passage^fhe might also some- 
times move at the appearance in the upper melody of some 
well-marked note, not closing, in consonance with the note 
next following in his own part; on the other hand, it would 
also appear that if discord with some imminent important note 
would result from the continuance of his own holding note, and 
if movement to the next were unsuitable, he might either 'feign 
concord,' by which is probably meant that he might invent 
a*proper note, or might even be altogether silent for awhile'. 

If then this view, in which the Tenor is first seen as giving 
a note to be organized, and as afterwards waiting and de- 
pending for guidance in its own movements upon the con- 
venience of the organal voice, may be considered as sufficientiy 
established, it would seem that we must look to the organal 
voice for a justification of the statements of the theorists 
with respect to the existence of measure in this kind of 

rhjtlimical point of Tiew« contiinieB : — ' Et eins eqnipollentia ^.e. Tenor), tantnm 
■e tenet in oninino (nnieon in a single pert coiuists in the holding or repetition of 
a aonnd), mque ad flnem alicoins poncti (the paaaage in the npper part is here 
meant), nt secnm oonTenit secnndnm aliquam ooooordantiam/ Omcms. Seripi, 
i. X14. The author of An OcMhu M$namabSU$ is equally explicit with regard to 
the nmneasnred ohamcter of the Tenor: — ' Sciendnm qnod ponun oiganam haheri 
non potest, nid saper tenorem, nhi soU nota est in nnisono.* And he adds the 
remadE, which Tnnstede has adapted^ that when the tenor notes were more 
nnmerous (as they woold be if measnred), the result must he diseantt^'ita 
^piod quando tenor aocipit plures notas simul, statim est diMantns/ Cbussc Script, 
LX34. 

* By well marked or important notes are here chiefly meant those which are 
flgured as loogs, respecting which the author of An CcmiuB MmuunbOiB says :— 

* Quidquid est longum indiget oonoordantia respectu tenoiis ; sed si disoordantia 
Tenerit, tenor taoeat, vel le in oonoordantiam fingat' Cbussf. Script, L 135. 
Walter Odington, after explaining that discant cannot he of less than two parts, 
adds : — 'Organum antem aliquando est unius . . . ut dum attendens concordiam, 
tenor aliquando taeet/ Il»d.i. 345. The Anonymns of the British Museum (B^yal 
MSB.) speaks of this praetioe only in reference to the first note of the Tenor : — 

* Bt nota quod primus punctus toioris mediat continuando, et roMoat in locis in 
qidhus magis competit secundum conooidantias suppositas, et quiescit secundum 
discordantias disconTaniimtei, fto^ proot melius oompetat.' Ibid. L 361. 



184 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

music; but it must be confessed that if those statements 
are to be taken as referring to measure according to strict 
rules, and marked by an evenly recurring beat of three times, 
it is difficult to find their justification in the accounts which 
we possess of the treatment of the upper part. This difficulty 
arises naturally, for instance, from a consideration of the rule 
given in Ars Cantus MefuurabiUs for the treatment in the 
upper part of Organum of the notes not in ligature, from 
which we learn that ^ whatever is noted with a simple longa 
is bng, with a brevii short, with a semibretns of shorter 
value still ^^; for while on the one hand we there gather that 
Organum, unlike the old eaniu$ eceleaiasticus, accepts the 
shape of the plain note as a sign of value, on the other it 
seems possible, from the author's abstention from mensural dis- 
tinctions such as perfecta, in^^erfeeta, altera, and his adoption 
of the general terms longumy breve, semibreve, that this value 
may not have been entirely dependent upon the circumstances 
which would have governed it in the cantue mensurabiUs* 

This impression is strengthened if we consider the language 
used by the Anonymus of the British Museum (Royal MSS.), 
in the mysterious sixth and seventh chapters of his treatise, 
language which is even more disheartening to the student in 
search of proofs of measurement in the upper part of Organtim 
purum than that of the author of Ars Cantus MensurabiUs; 
for from this account of the method it would appear that 
notes were valued sometimes according to their position — 
when the long notes are the first, last^ last but one, and first 
of all ligatures — and sometimes, though subject to the con- 
sideration of position^ according as they are concordant or 
discordant, the concordant notes being long and the discordant 
short*; indeed, the final impression to be derived from so much 

1 « Qaidquid notatnr in longa simpliei nota longam eai, et in breri farera, et in 
lemibreyi semibreTe.' Omims. Script, i. 135. 

' ' In puro antem cngano mnltiplici via et modo longe et btevee cognoseimtar; 
nno modo aic : OmniBpnnotoi priniTU, sive foerit conoordana in aliqna oonoordantia 
prediotomm, rive nan, ante erit longa parva, vel longa taida^ vel media; et hoe in 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 185 



as is intelligible of this very obscure accoimt may very well be 
that in the eystem of Organum purum measure^ as it was 
understood in the thirteenth century^ finds no place at all. 

On the other hand we may remember that nothing has 
been said by the theorists^ in discussing this form. of compo- 
mtion, from which we could definitely and without doubt 
conclude that the upper part is not to be translated according 
to the main rules of measurement in triple proportion. The 
Anonymus himself^ in closing his account of the regular modes 
of discant^ speaks of others (afterwards described by him as 
the modes of Organum)^ as ^commonly called ''unused/^ as 
if irregular^ though not really deserving that name^'; and 
from this we may infer that no wide technical distinction^ 
such as that between measured and unmeasured, existed 
between the regular and irregular modes, and that the latter 
were perhaps characterized only by the absence of metrical 
rhythms. Again, Pseudo-Aristotle teUs us that the regular 
modes were chosen out of many which formerly existed, but 
he makes no allusion to the triple proportion as the ground 
of selection. And the author of Ars Cantus MenturabiUs, 
though he mentions the absence of measure in the Tenor, 
says nothing respecting a similar freedom in the upper part ; 
such a feature, had it existed, would have been eminently 
worthy of remark, yet the author confines his notice to the 
scarcity and excessive length of the lower notes. 

And turning to the examples themselves of this form of 

qiuwnnqfoe Ugfttora sive fnerit davm vel trivin, fto. Item onmU pnnctof nlterini 
eoit loogni et ooiifiQidAiis. Item omnii panctas pemltimiu ante longam paoiatio* 
Bern, iieat in fine puncti vel claiiefile» Mt longna. Et omnii puietos pennltimtu 
dmUitiidinaiie peroeptni longni per modvm, sive fnerit conoordans, live non. 
Item omnii ponctof dnorom, primus li fnerit in conoordantSa, longfu, li fnerit in 
diaeonootdanti% hnn», in qnantnm de le et non in qnantnm pennltima prodicta. 
Itfltato omnia panctas nltimns dooram, si faerit conondaos, longos, si foerit 
diacordanSf breris/ kc. 0ou89$, Soripi, t 563. 

' 'Iteiato sant et alii modi qoi dioantar modi inositati, qoaii inegnlam^ 
qnamTia non sint, Telnti in partilms Anglie et alibi, com dieant longa» longa 
faievii; longa, longa Ineris; ^ rant plueB tales velnti infarios plenios damoiistn>- 
Utor.' Ibid.338. 



i86 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

composition, of which we now fortunatdy have access to 
a considerable number, we find that it is always perfectly 
possible to translate the notes of the upper part in measure, 
according to the rules of the earlier theorists--of Jean de 
Garlande and Pseudo-Aristotle for instance — and that the 
results are always satisfactory, and sometimes indeed display 
very remarkable beauty; and this fact is in itself a strong 
argument in favour of the existence of a mensural intention. 
On the other hand the attempts of the present writer to con- 
struct from the given figures, upon a non-mensund basis, phrases 
containing any dear musical meaning, have entirely failed. With 
no intention therefore of pretending to prejudge a question which 
is now only for the first time brought within the view of his- 
torical students, and which must eventually be decided by the 
verdict not of one but of all, the writer has thought it desirable, 
in the specimens which follow, to represent the upper part 
as measured, in the belief that the versions thus obtained may 
substantially represent the intention of the composers, subject 
probably to a certain freedom of execution as rq^ards the time^. 
It will be observed that each of our examples containt 
a portion of pure discant, a portion, that is to say, in which 
both the upper and lower parts are measured in time; and 
this intrusion upon the Organum purum^ for which the theorists 
had not sufficientiy prepared us, seems to be a necessary 
feature of the method, for it occurs in all the specimens 
examined by the writer. In some it occupies a very con- 
siderable proportion of the composition, while in others it is 
much reduced ; in some again it is concentrated in one portion 
of the work, in others it is distributed, and appears in small 
quantities from time to time. These passages are always in 
regular modes, in which the swing of the triple rhythm is 
extremely noticeable, whQe the true Orgawum purumy which 

' Six of the iiregnlAT modes of the Anonymiii of the Britiflh Muaeom may 
eanly be aeen as identical in origin with the regular modes whose nnmben they 
beer, and ss differing in respect of their augmentation and diminntion of the valve 
of individual notes. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



187 



oonstitates the remainder of the comporition^ stands out, 
through the totally different character of its phrases^ in striking 
contrast* This revelation of the mixed nature of the method 
casts a new light upon the saying of the author of Ars Cantui 
MenmrabiUs^ already quoted at p. 183 of this work, that 
Organum purum can only exist above the long holding notes 
of the Tenor^ and that when the Tenor notes are numerous 
and dose together it becomes discant. His illustration also, 
which formerly seemed to represent two distinct ideas, may 
now be considered as a single composition. 

An Ccmtus MenmirabiUsj cap. xiii. 
I (jOrgamim^) 




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with regard to the rests in the music of the rather early period 
from which our specimens are taken. The rests do not 
exhibit their actual value; a small hasty scratch, — ^which may 
also indicate equivalence, — expresses every kind of pause. 
Sometimes it may signify a mere breathing, sometimes 
a definite pause of breve length, sometimes again a pause 
equivalent to the perfect long. In the following translations 
the rest has been indicated by a comma above the stave; if 
actual value seems to be intended that value is shown in its 
proper place, but if a mere breathing is supposed the comma 
alone suffices to express it. 

^ The onament implied Iqr the ngn at»fv« the two long u^ 
ing roughly to the modem shakes it 11 freqaent in Qrgannm, and oooarred upon long 
notes or when eoosecntiTe notes were uttered upon the same sound. It consisted of 
a kind of oscillation broken by npid beats; thd oscillation might be at almost any 
intenral^ bat dther tone or semitone were generally employed. Be Qariande 
icpiesonts the method of execution (Omcms. Script, L 117) tbns:^ 




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DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 189 



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It would appear that the form of composition displayed in 
these examples is alone rightly called Organum purum. Other 
forms however existed^ compositions of three and four voices, 
in which the characteristic structure of Organum purum, — 
unmeasured long notes in the tenor held imder passages of 
varying length in the upper part^ — ^was maintained, and these 
apparently were called Organum triplum and quadruplum. Such 
compositions, however, differed materially from Organum duplum 
in the character of the upper parts, which were from the nature 
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panim, Telnt in lytdn et Itruaalem, in dnplo, Telnt DmotfuUt d$ edi$, Tel Qaiid$ 
Maria, Ac. . . . Qwuidoqne dicitur alio modo, nt in organo tripio, qoamnt 
impn/pne, vvlnt in PbmH Adhd^rium.' Oomat, SeripL i. 354. 



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In the large collection of specimens of this form of mumc 
contained in the Florence MS,, from which our examples are 
taken^ we may perhaps see a part, if not the whole^ of the 
'great book of organum upon the Gradual and Antiphoner/ 
first composed by hSonm, and afterwards abbreviated and 
largely re-written and also enriched with many new and original 
works by P^xitin. Our main reasons for this identification 
have already been given in the preface to the present work, 
but it may also be said here that our view receives n partial 



* Thus in the on 



S38 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

confirmation from a oonsideration of the methodB employed 
in the MS., for these, so far as we can judge of them at 
present, indicate a phase of organum easily concrivable as 
contemporary with P^rotin, a phase which is apparently far 
removed from archaism, but in which, as it would seem, the 
last refinements have not yet been added ^. We perceive, for 
instance^ no trace of the ancient ligatures of five notes at least 
— mentioned by the author of Discanius PoHHo Vulfforu as 
proper to organum, — ^which received no rule, and were to be 
sung ad placitum ; ligatures of five notes are indeed of frequent 
occurrence in the MS., but the ease widi which such figures 
are included in a proportional scheme upon a ternary basis 
would seem to indicate the fact that the period of archaic 
freedom was now past. On the other hand we have many 
reasons, derived both from the details of the composition and 
from the system of notation, for supposing that the methods 
of this MS. date from before the period illustrated by Ars 
CafUu$ Memurabilis and the treatise of Walter Odington. 
This seems clear, for instance^ from the apparent absence from 
the MS. of the forms of Copula given in those treatises. 
Copula, it niay be explained, was an important feature of 
organum, in duplum and triplum; it consisted of a short 
passage occurring, according to Odington, always upon the 
penultimate long note of the tenor, and constituting the final 
ornament of the composition ^ It began with a long note 



' That P^rotin cumot have belonged to the archaic period seems dear if we 
consider that not onlj does the Anonymns of the British Musenm, a writer of 
the Franconian period, commend the 'great book*' most highly — ^'Et si quis 
haberet servitinm divinam sub tali forma baberet optimum ^-olumea istins 
artb/ — but he also tells us that it was still in his own day in use in tlie choir 
of Notre Dame; and from this drcumstanoe we may gather that Putin's 
system of notation must have been agreeable in its elementary features to that 
of the settled period. On the other hand, it is evident, from the whtAe chaiacter 
of the theorist's allnrions to him, that he lived before the period of general 
and fbaaX agreement. 

* The author of An Canhu MenmirabiU$y of earlier date than O^ngton, says 
nothing respecting the final diazmcter of copula ; and a certain passage of the 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 239 

ad liiUum, was continued in either the second or the sixth 
regular mode of rhjrthm — sung very quickly — and ended, as it 
began, with a long note. It was shown in two ways, one for 
each mode, thus^: — 

COPULA LIOATA COPULA NON LIOATA 

(Second Mode) (Sixth Mode) 



j1 H i fl fi ■ . ^ ° 1 '' ■ ■ ■ ' U 




It is probable that copula is contained in some form not yet 
certainly to be identified in the MS., since both Jean de 
Oarlande and the Anonymus — ^whose doctrine, like the music 
of the MS. itself, dates from before the time of Franco — refer 
to it as a feature of great importance ; unfortunately, however, 

'Criplam .AUduia, Pomd AdMMum^ mentioDed bj the Anonjiniis — eee p. 179 
(note) of this work,— and said by that author to be pnt * in looo oopale,' may 
be taken to prove that the final character did not prevail exclusively in his day, 
since the paseage in question ooonis npon the eighth long note before the close. 

' 'Oopnla est yelox disoantos ad invicem copnlatns. CopaU alia ligata, alia 
nan Hgata. Ligata oopola est qne indpit a simplici longa, et proeeqoitar per 
binariam ligatoram com proprietate et peifectiooe, ad similitodinem eecondi 
modi; ab ipso tamen secnndo modo differt, sdlioet in notando et profeiendo; 
in notando, qnia seeundns modns in principio simplioem Umgam nan habet; 
copola vero habet. ... In pro f e r endo etiam differt copola a secnndo modo, quod 
secondns prtfertor ez recta brovi et longa imperfecta ; sed copula ista velodter 
p rof eie t nr, qnasi semibrevis et brevis, nsqne ad flnem. 

' Copola non ligata ad simiUtodinem qninti modi (Franco's fifth mode was 
the nsnal sixth) fit. IMflert tamen a qninto dopliciter : in notando et in pro- 
f^rando. In notando diflert a qninto^ qoia qnintns sine litters nbiqne ligabUis 
est, sed copula ista nunquam super littem acdpiatur, et tamen non igatur. . . . 
In profe i endo diifert etiam a quinto, quod quintus ex rectis brevibns profertur, 
copula vero velodus proferendo oopulatur.' An Ganftis MtnmmMtiM; Onisas. 
8ertfit» i. 133-4. 

' Copula ligata fiwienda est super unum punctum vel pluras sieut otganum : 
fenim aliquando triplex est. Et aoeipit longam notam in principio non men- 
snratan, et procedit per binariam llgaturam. Copula non ligata eodem modo 
fit, sed non ligatura. Ista vero spedas sive ligata sive separata semper apponitur 
In fine punctorum, niii omnes deoenter posiunt pausare.' W. Odington, Gbusw. 
Soipl. i. 348. 



040 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

intelligible particulars respecting it are not to be found in either 
of these writers, and the copula to which they refer therefore 
remains for the present indistinguishable^. 

Among the circumstances relating to the sj^stem of figura- 
tion employed m this MS. which seem to characterize it as 
belonging in its origin to a period antecedent to the settle^ 
ment of notation^ we may chiefly refer to the apparent ignorance 
of the writer with respect to the figures sine proprietate, which 
as we saw were adopted by the later mensuralists in order to 
assist in the expression of certain modal rhythms, and to avoid 
the necessity of employing the same figure for different pur- 
poses. The MS. contains apparently no example of this kind 
of figure, and the writer's intention seems to be conveyed 
throughout by means of the old ligatures cum prcprieiaie et 
pef/eetUme, used either simply in their iambic and anapaestic 
sense, or with a shifted accent to indicate the trochaic and 
dactylic measures. The date of the actual invention of the 
figures sine prcprietate is uncertain ; so far as is knovm at 
present they make their first appearance in the treatises of 
Jean de Garlande and of Pseudo-Aristotle, whose period, as 
we have seen, may perhaps be siud to coincide with the first 
quarter of the thirteenth century. The only earlier treatises of 
any importance for measurable mumc, Discanius Positio Vulgaris 
and De Musica Libellus, contain no allusion to the invented 
figures. The writer of Diseantus Positio Vulgaris makes no 



* It would appear from de G«rlande*s aooount (CbutM. Script i. 114) tbftt 
the oopnlft of hit day resemUed the later f onn in reapect of its regular modal 
chamoter, hot he leaves us in ignorance with regard to the method of its nota- 
tion. The Anonymus heads lus fifth chapter Ik tripUeibug de guadruplidlmM et de 
CopuUif bat the description of oopnla has apparentiy been omitted in the MS. 
from which H. de Conssemaker printed hii edition. A passage written in the 
Franconian form of copuia non ligata occurs in the treatise De Muaica Libdlue 
(probably Ute twelfth centniry), as part of the illustration of the interval 
of the seventh ; bnt if we are to assnme that it formed in this shape a part of 
Organnm before the year laoo, as well as in the later period of IVanoo and 
Odington, its apparent absence from the Florence MS. becomes exceedingly 
diiBcnlt to explain. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 241 

mention even of ' propriety/ and it is clear that the old figures 
derived directly from the cantus eccksiasticus alone existed in 
his day. In the somewhat later treatise De Musica LibeUus 
propriety indeed appears^ but it belongs to single notes as well 
as to ligatures; it has nothing to do with value^ and refers 
merely to the distinctive form* Thus^ the ^ propriety^ of the 
long is a square form with a stroke upon the right side 
descending^ that of a breve is the absence of the stroke ; the 
'propriety' of a descending ligature is a stroke upon the left 
side^ that of an ascending ligature is the absence of the stroke, 
and so on ; and here again most probably no knowledge of 
the invented figures is to be supposed. The methods there- 
fore of that portion of the Florence MS. with which we are 
at present concerned would seem to agree with those of the 
earliest treatises, so far as regards the exclumve use of the 
figures cum proprietate ; yet, since thdr use of these figures is 
apparentiy more systematic and consistent than that which 
is inculcated in either Discantua Positio Vulgaris or De Musica 
Libettus, we may suppose that they shoidd be referred to some 
period later than the probable date of De Musica lAbeUus but 
earlier than that of the treatises in which the figures sine pro^ 
prietaie would seem to be first used; and this period may 
perhaps be assigned to about the year laco. 

Another circumstance connected with notation which would 
seem to indicate the date just mentioned as approximately that 
of the methods exhibited in the Florence MS. is the use of 
certain forms, not to be found in the later settied mensural 
system, some of which also appear in the older portions of the 
Montpellier MS., — ^in the Quadrtgtla, for instance, and in 
certain pieces ascribed to P^rotin and (wrongly) to the author 
of Ars Cantus MensurMlis. The chief of these are as 
follows :— 

(a) (h) (c) (d) 



■n 



1 ■J I a^^ f^ I ^ 



WOOLDUDOB 



%4% METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

The first, (a), in the Montpellier MS. sometimes also \\, is 
occasionally used to express the value of the perfect long. It 
was derived probably from plainsong, and no doubt originally 
illustrated in the mensural system the transition from the 
period of ^equivocal rigns^ of which the Anonymus speaks^ 
to that which is marked by the strict differentiation of the 
forms according to their value. The second, (b), sometimes 
also in the Montpellier MS. ^^ ^, is identical with the first 
in principle, and represents the long plica. The third, (c), is 
a form adopted apparently from motives of convenience to 
express the long plica in those ligatures in which the last 
note is placed perpendicularly above the penultimate: in the 
first shape we see the long plica ascending from the binary 
ligature represented by an additional note not counted — as in 
the previous figures; in the second, the true position of the 
final note in the ternary ligature is reversed in order to display 
the plica. The fourth figure, (df), has already been shown in 
our example of the fourth mode of rhythm, from Jean de 
Gfarlande*. It expresses a ligature of three notes, ' with pro- 
priety and perfection,' of which the first two are upon the same 
sound. 

Attention may also be drawn to a figure known to the men- 
suralists as precedens cum curreniiius. This is one of the older 
figures derived from plainsong, and is shown thus : — 

(a) (ft) (c) (cO W (/) (0) (*^ 



^ ^\ ^ \. \ \ \ \ 

' ^ % % \ % ^ \ I 




The shorter forms (a and b), consisting of a long and either 
two or three semibreves, are constantly found in discant, 
and are there valued as shown below. The more extended 
forms (c to h) — in which the semibreves are usually from 

^ See p. 1 16 of the prefent work. ' Ilnd., p. 140. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



^43 



four to seven in number^ occasionally eight, but very rarely 
more in unbroken series — are peculiar to Organum and 
Ckmductua. 

No perfectly intelligible rules for the actual valuation of the 
extended forms are to be derived as yet from the treatises. 
We know that the currentes were sung very quickly and 
without strict regard to measure; but whether the figure as 
a whole was to be rendered in accordance with the principle 
governing our first examples (a and b^) below, or whether it 
should appear as in 6', is not certain. But considering the 
difficulty of executing such figures for instance as /, g, and h 
above upon the principle adopted in b^y that is to say within 
the limits of one ^perfection/ it has been considered probable 
that the actual intention of the extended figure in organum 
and etmduchu would be well expressed by the rule — clearly 
discernible in the MS. when the test of equivalence is possible, 
as in triplum and quadruplum — ^which assigns two ^perfec- 
tions' as a possible limit when the figure contains not less 
than three currentes. This rule affords all necessary space 
for the execution of any number of semibreves up to and 
including nine, as wiU be seen from our suggestions of possible 
forms here following : — 



C«) 



(6") 



(5«) 



(c) 




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With the forgoing exceptions the notation presents to us 
only familiar forms, arranged also, in the free portions of the 

It 2 



244 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

oiganum often^ and in the discant portions always, in a familiar 
manner — ^that is to say in such groups as are proper to the 
expression of the six r^ular modes. In the discant portknit 
this regularity was, as we have seen, presumably real and 
complete ; in the free portions however, or in other words in 
all that was sung above the long holding notes, the r^^ularity 
was probably apparent only, for there can be little doubt that 
in this situation the time values of the figures indicating the 
well-known modal phrases were interpreted in performance 
with great freedom, and with a licence affording considmble 
scope for the ingenuity of the singer; and thus as it would 
seem arose the numerous irregular modal varieties, of which 
probably the list with alternatives given by the Anonymus 
contains only a few. But the familiar forms, as we have said, 
were not always arranged in a familiar manner; often, in the 
free portions of the organum — eq>eciaUy in duplum — all appear^ 
ance of r^ularity disappears, and a constant and ever varying 
mixture of the figures indicates the presence of the seventh 
irregular mode, the mode chiefly characteristic of orgamum 
purum, in which all the rest were supposed to be blended ^^ 
and by means of which an effect of complete liberty and entire 
absence of premeditation, highly suggestive of the derivation of 
this method from extempore invention, is produced. And this 
liberty, which is characteristic of everjrthing that is sung above 
the long holding note, extended also naturally to the pauses, 
which as we have seen received no material sign of value in 
the written composition, and were in performance entirely at 
the discretion of the singer*. 
Considering therefore the great variety of possible interpre- 

^ ' Est feptimni xnodns nobUiitimTU et digniuimiu, magui volimtaiias et pUeens; 
et iste modus est modus permixtos et oommtmis, et est de omnibus dnobus sopra- 
diotis et de omnibus tribos et de omnibus qnatnor, &c.; et proprie loqnendo 
denominatar orgsnum pnram et nobile/ fto. Otwssa. Script, L 36a. 

' 'PsQSAtioneB vero valde Tolontaiie prooedunt, seoondnm quod melius ▼idebitor 
oaotori Tel opentori, et hoc in minimis maioribns et mediocribns (semifare^ea, 
longs, and braves); dnpiices (rests of the doable long) vero in organo poio raro 
invaniniitiir/ 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 245 

tations of the modal figures written above the long notes of 
organum purum, and the obscurity which at present veils the 
significance of some of the terms used by the Anonymus in his 
description of the irregular varieties, no attempt has been 
made in our present efforts towards translation to represent 
the exact time -value of the uttered sounds; and since the 
Anonymus says distinctly that the material signs of the regular 
modal figures were, with a few exceptions, sufficient to express 
the intention of their irreg^ular counterparts in the written 
music of his time^, it has been thought that here also the 
mensural equivalents of the r^ular figures may perhaps for 
the present be allowed to perform a similar office. 

With respect to the conductus, the remaining important 
form of composition in which not all the parts have words, 
the information left to us by the theorists is smaller in 
quantity and less precise in its character even than that upon 
which we depended for our first notions of organum purum. 
One or two facts, however, stand out more or less clearly in the 
descriptions which have been given, and of these the most 
valuable — since it reveals the essential characteristic of the 
conductu9 — ^is that mentioned both by the author of Ars Cantui 
Mensurabilis and by Odington with respect to the nature of the 
lower part ; for from their treatises we find that in this form of 
composition, and in 'this form alone among the dignified kinds 
of music, the tenor was not taken from the ritual melodies of 
the church. These writers do not, however, altogether agree 
in their accounts of the actual source of the tenor; the 
author of Ars Cantus MefmarabilU holding that it must be 
entirely invented bj^^e composer*, while Odington informs us 

* 'Hota quod ad oognitioiiem pari organi predieti modi imgalam tiifficiimt 
com qoilmadftm aliis poa^Kwttii. Iterate not» quod tiiffidt de modo ilgni«iidi 
iozte daMriptioDem eoramdeni. nt raperins pleniiif patet. Si eat ilgaratio 
T'***^"**!" aicnt in aliia xi^giilarilnia, quaniTia in aliqailnia ait differantSa^* fte, 
Ctmt$9, Scripi. i. 36a. 

' After Ua clawiflcation of the forma of oomporitioii, given ftt p. 176 of thia 
work* the anthor oontimiea :— * Et notaqnod his omnibiia eat idem modna operandi, 
eseepto in oondnctia. Qoia in omniboa aliia primo aodpitnr oaotna aliqnia prina 



046 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



tbftt it might also be adopted from some already existing extra- 
litmgical source. From the author of Discanius PoriHo Vfdffarii 
Mre obtain the important information that the composition was 
framed upon a metrical basis, and we are also told that it ad- 
mitted the secondary consonances — a statement from which we 
may perhaps infer that these consonances, commonly described 
as imperfect, were used in the conductus in a larger proportion 
than in music founded upon the cantus ecelesiasHcusK Finally, 
Walter Odington mentions that iu'this method the unusual 
device of taking several notes in direct sequence upon the same 
sound was a peculiar feature. He^also compares the conductus 
generally with the Rondel, and may be said to define it as 
a work of the same nature as the Rondel, though deprived of 
the essential constructive feature of that form, namely the 
carefully ordered imitation of one part by all the rest in turn. 
In lus view therefore all the parts of the conductus were 
equally melodious and displayed the same kind of melody'; 
and this indeed appears from his example, the only specimen 
of this form of composition to be found in the works of the 
theorists, which is here given. 





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hudtPOMf qui tenor didtoxy eo quod diBoantom tenet et Ab ipio [toiors] oriiim hibet 
[diMonficf]. In oondnctit Teto non sic, led finnt ab eodem ouitni et diiouitu. . . . 
Qui ynlt facere oondactani, primnm cantnm invenire debet polchrioram qnaai 
potest : deinde nti debet illo, ut de tenoro faciendo dlsoantnm/ Cbusw. Ser^ L 13a. 

' * Condnctos antem eet raper nnmn metnxm mnltiplez oomonans oantnSy qui 
etiam secondarias redpit cmwonantiai/ Ibid. i. 96. 

' * Oondneti font oompoaiti ex plicalnlibas cantidi decoris oognitii val inventia, 
et in diwtis modia, ao pnndis iteratia, in eodem tono val di?ttiis. . . . BondaUns 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



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The Anonymua of the BritiBh Museum gives no information 
with respect to the methods of composition proper to this kind 
of music^ but we leam from him that the conductus was 
a highly important f orm^ and that it had been largely employed 
by the greatest masters. He informs us^ moreover^ that it was 
of several kinds — sitnplex^ dtgflex, and triples; a four^part 
kind also is referred to^ but its existence, except in a somewhat 
rudimentary shape, appears to be doubtful, since to the author's 
mention of quadruplices among the finished forms he adds ri 
JhuTtnt. Room for speculation also exists with respect to the 
nature of conducH rimplices. From the author's classification 
— simpUces, duplices, triplice», et guadrt^lices (it Jwrinf) — we 
might naturally suppose that the simple kind was for one 
voice only ; and remembering that the Anonymus ascribes to 
P&otin a cofiducpuinmplex upon the words Beata vUcera, &c., 
and considen^ the fact that among the compositions for a 
single voice in the Florence MS. a Beaia vUeerOy &c., is to be 
found, we may perhaps be somewhat strengthened in this 
supposition. On the other hand, from the author's statement, 
contained inhis remarks upon the misuse of the word argamum 
-^In tr^lo quandogue simplew organum dieitur, nt in Hmpkci" 
bus omductiB — ^we cannot but infer that the simple canductus 
might also be in three parts. In this latter view therefore the 



vd cam Utitn nX one littorft ni. 8i two mm sltn ftlteriiif redtet 
fiBSiali prooedioit per oeitoi panotot, didtnr CkMiduetai^ 0imh< jAtm emiliit 
conAictf .* Cmut$, Saipt L 247. 



OUilU&y Wd 



248 METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 

^simplicity' of the eonduchu would refer rather to its method 
of composition than to the number of its Toice parts ; and in 
fact, in the pieces contained in the Florence MS. which can 
be identified as eanducti, we may certainly observe two methods, 
one essentiaUy simple and the other essentially daborate, the 
admixture of which in one composition would indeed seem to 
constitute the classical form of this kind of music: and that the 
simple method was often used alone, in such a manner as to 
justify the appellation conducti simpUces, we learn from the 
Anonymus himself, who speaks of conducti for two, three, 
and four voices, in which the elaborate portions were entirely 
absent; and such pieces he says were much in favour with 
less experienced singers. It is possible, therefore, that the 
name of conducti simpUces was applied in two senses, and 
might designate either a composition for one voice, or a com- 
position in which the simple method only was employed. 

But passing from this point, we may proceed to give, from 
observation of the existing complete specimens, some further 
particulars respecting the composite and chiefly prevailing form 
of conductus; and may especially indicate the nature of the 
difference, and the <»rigin of the remarkable contrast of 
character, which exists between the simple and elaborate 
methods. 

Broadly speaking, in this form of composition the simpler 
method is displayed in the treatment of the metrical words — 
for it may be explained that the words of the conductus, which 
are given to the tenor or lower part, are always metrical — ^when 
they proceed straight forward in continuous rhythm; all the 
parts then moving together follow the simple accents of 
the poem, and are written moreover in accordance with the 
old principle-— exemplified in our former specimens Verbum 
bonum and Custodi nos — which assigns a single long note or 
its equivalent to each syllable of the text, and in which every 
note or group of notes, however figured, is equal to the note 
or group to which it is opposed; and in this simple and 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 249 

fandameiital method all the music properly belonging, so to 
speak, to the poem is expressed. This portion of the work 
however was evidently, from the technical point of view, its 
least important part, for it is upon the ornamental portions 
that the strength and skill of the composer were chiefly 
exerted. The ornament consists of long passages of the later 
measured music, resembling in style the discant portions of 
organum purum, but generally of greater extent and exhibiting 
greater variety of resource, interpolated at irregular intervals 
in the texture of the simpler portion, and taken upon prominent 
syllables, among which the first of the initial word of each 
stanza, and the penultimate of the last word, generally received 
the most extensive embellishment. These extraneous orna- 
mental interpolations were the caudae, which adorned, as the 
Anonymus tells us, the greater part of the fine collection of 
conducti in the library of Notre Dame, and which we find in 
profusion in the specimens, probably derived from that collec- 
tion, in the Florence MS. In their melodic character they 
display as a rule much of the rude and lilting kind of beauty 
which belongs to the triple metres of the mediaeval use, and 
form a strong contrast to the more smoothly moving spondees 
of the simple portion of the work; while from the harmonic 
point of view we may again observe both the accidental clashing 
of the voices in their progress towards the perfect concord, and 
the more deliberate discords placed for the sake of ^oolour^ in 
certain well recognized positions, which are characteristic of the 
early mensural period, and which we have already seen in the 
elaborate forms of organum. 

The juxtaposition in this form of composition of two kinds 
of music, not only widely different in character but also repre- 
senting two distinct phases of progress different in point of 
time, is a somewhat remarkable circumstance, and may well 
give rise to the supposition that just as in organmn purwn we 
saw a later and arbitrary embellishment of the antipbon, so in 
these great compositions we may perceive an analogous process 



a5o 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



applied perhaps originany to ancient extra-litoigical hymns, 
and more recently to nmilar themes composed — ^in order to 
maintain the essential form of the eandueiu^ — in the ancieot 
technique. 

Among the devices adopted in the embellishments of the 
eonduciu9 will be fomid not only the Tsrious applicationa of 
sequence and imitation^ so far as they were known at this 
period^ and the figures which might seem to indicate the 
presence of some form of ecpula, all of which were to be seen 
in arganium purum, but a new kind now makes its appearance, 
a kind mentioned in our list of forms of composition in the 
same dass with organum and conduetuf, but apparently at this 
period more often met with in practice as a temporary device 
used to give interest or variety than for its own sake or in 
a continuous form — the 0chetu9 or Hoguet. The nature of 
this device is partly indicated by its name. It consisted essen- 
tially in a sudden hiatus in the voice— * truncation ' is the word 
used by the theorists — ^governed by the rhythmical mode of the 
passage. Thus^ in modes consisting of longs and breves either 
the long or the breve is omitted in the hoquet from its proper 
situation^ and this is rignified in the written music by an 
equivalent pause; moreover^ for the sake of continuity^ the 
hiatus created in one voice is filled by another^ and in 
general if one voice omits the breve the other is silent in 
the place of the long^^ thus:— 




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Walter Odington, Ooutte. Scrift L 148. 

* ^mncatio eet eantiu reetii ofamiiiiiqiie Todbni tnmcate prolatiiSy et ■deDdnm 
quod tmncfttio tot modii poteit fieri, quot loQg«m, lneTeni« Tel femibmem 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 251 

In our examples of conducius the hoquet will be found in 
its most simple form^ that is to say in the fifth mode of rhythm 
— ^in which the hiatus is always of the value of a perfect long-— 
and in very short passages^ but from the treatises and composi- 
tions of the Franconian period we may discover that it was 
afterwards much cultivated, and brought to express the 
tnmcatiop of breves^. 

No specimens of conductua quadruples written in the classical 
form have as yet been observed in the Florence MS., and this 
circumstance to some extent confirms the doubt with respect 
to their existence which was expressed by the Anonymus of 
the British Museum. The specimen given from the MS« 
among the pieces here following exhibits apparently an earlier 
phase of the form than that which is displayed in the examples 
for two and three voices, since not only the music of the text, 
but the Cauda also, seems to i>e written in the older method 
in which each group of notes ec^uals the long. The discordant 
passages of consecutive sevenths and seconds which occur 
before the close must probably be accepted as a recognized 
feature of important compositions in four parts, unce a 
similar device occurs also in the same situation, in our 
example of organum quad'nigplum. 

oontingit ptitixi. Long» putibUiB Mt aniltipliciter; primo In kmgtin et bniftni, 
et ln«?em et loogtm ; et ex boo fit tmnotttlo, tbI oketai, q[iiod idem eet, ita q[iiod 
la mo breTie obmittatiov in alio Tero longa.' An OBfrfuf JftfifMraMUi^ cap. ziii. 

^ ' Sifi etiim poteet (Umga} di^idi la tree Inereiy tbI due, et la pluiee eemi- 
bNvee. Bt ex hiB omnilnii eantetnr traneetio per Tocee leetee et obmiewn, ita 
<]iiodt q[aando mine paneety aline non paaeet^ Tel e ecmTeno. Bivfle two paztiUlie 
eetintneeemilaeTeeTnldnaej et ex hoc eaatatnr eantue oketn% nnam eemibnreni 
olnnitteiido In nna, et aliam prateendo.' Ilnd. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



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271 




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It is evident from this spedmen that the scheme of the 
ctmductus includes (though the treatises do not mention the fact) 
a point of orffanumpurum upon the penultimate note of important 
divisions of the composition. In the following example, which 
is by die great P^rotin, this device is again seen, used moreover 
in great variety, and also much more frequently than in the 
specimen before us. 

P&otin also, it will be observed, uses the pause of the perfect 
long less often than the composer of Pater Nosier j and thus 
creates constantly a fullness and continuity of sound which is 
often noticeably wanting in compositions such as this just given, 
in which the long pause is much employed. 



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CoNDUCTUB Duplex. 



DUM SIGILLUM. 



BibL Medieeo-Luupensiajm, 
MS. Flat. 35^ I, foL cocxliv. 




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^ 'Sunt qnidAxn boni organiate et factores oantanm qni noa veguktitMr iuta 
oonsidentioiiem predictam pornint diaoordaatias looo oonoGrdantie vel eoncopd a a- 
tianim. St hoc per qoamdam snbtilitatem ponimiis ponctorain are notaram 
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aliter, qnoniam xeeta regnla est/ Anon. B. M., Omcse. 8ar^ L 358. *8ipemMima 
fuerit 1onu8 in duqih Bupra tenormn, at in organo poro, opHme erii ooneontaWy qnamvis 
tonns non nt ooncordantta.' Ibid. This note applies also to many other passages 
of these ezamples^ which the reader will discover for himself. 



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305 



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3o8 METHOD OP MUSICAL ART 

If we may define the conductua, in accordance both with the 
statements of the theorists and with the examples just given, 
as essentially a composition of equally free and flowing melodies 
in all the parts, in which the words are metrical and given to 
the lower voice only, we should necessarily include in this kind 
of music our former examples Verbum bonum, Agnus fill, and 
Custodi nos, which, if they be conducH, fall naturally into the 
subdivision rine cauda. These examples may therefore perhaps 
constitute our specimens of this class as it exists in the French 
collections. One more of the simple kind, written upon the 
hymn Vert FToris, will now be given from an English source, 
and a few others, also existing in our English libraries, which 
seem to display a tentative approach towards embellishment, 
and which therefore perhaps may be included in the subdivision 
cum caudis, will accompany it. Though derived from English 
sources these compositions, with one exception, display little 
variation from the French manner, and might very well be of 
French origin ; but with regard to the single exception, which 
is undoubtedly by an English composer, since it is written to 
English words, a remarkable difference from the French manner 
is perceptible — a difference, it may be said, which is equally 
to be perceived in all specimens of the distinctly English music 
of this period which have been preserved. We here find ample 
proof of the predilection for the imperfect consonance of the 
third which was ascribed at this time to the English composers, 
and we may observe a method — ^peculiar apparently to our 
country — a symmetrical crossing of groups of notes^ gi^^ing 
for instance/*^ a in one part and a g f in the other — ^which 
seems to have been designed in order to ensiure their constant 
appearance. We may note, moreover, as characteristic of the 
English music, that the composition is written in one of the 
most usual ecclesiastical modes — in this case the seventh — ^but 
with Bb at the signature. 



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1 It wiU be observed tbat the Latin stanza here given is complete in itself, and 
tbat the French phiases (which it may be said occnr in all the stanzas of this 
h jmn in the same situation) are interpolated. 



314 



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No compositions clearly to be identified as conducti and 
noted in accordance with the later settled rules have as yet 
been discovered^ and we are therefore at present unable to 
give specimens of this kind of music illustrating the periods 
either of the Francos or of Odington. But from the example^ 
small as it is^ supplied by the latter theorist in his treatise ^^ 



^ See p. 346 of this work. 



3i8 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

we may perhaps gather that in his time a certain advance had 
been made-— au advance in which probably all existing forms 
of composition shared — ^both in the character of the voice parts 
and in the general harmonic efiEect; for while the fragments 
of individual melody in that example may be said to display 
greater ease and independence of style than the earlier phrases, 
the harmony also is now apparently more complete, the conmion 
chord for instance being constantly employed in the place of the 
earlier bare fifth* 

But although it is probable that with respect to the details 
of this kind of music, a certain amelioration might be per- 
ceived in later examples, if these could be discovered, it is not 
to be supposed that any structural improvement or general 
development indicative of life and progress would be observable, 
for there can be no doubt that already in the time of Odington 
both the great classical forms of composition — Conductus and 
Organum purum — had begun to suffer neglect, and were in 
fact passing out of use. 

This may certainly be inferred from the statements of 
Odmgton's younger contemporary Jean de Muris, who in his 
great pan^yric upon the older music — written about the 
middle of the fourteenth century, and probably soon after the 
death of the elder theorist-~deplores the complete abandonment 
at that period of Organum and Conductus^ and reveals, as 
regards the first of these, the almost entire ignorance of com- 
posers with respect even to its method. The Motetus he says 
and the Cantilena now engaged exclusively the attention of 
musicians; the old forms were quite laid aside, and, together 
with their authors, were treated with open contempt by the 
less able and less energetic musicians of the day^. 

^ 'Moderni nonne qpmA lolis utnntur motetis et cantilenifl* nisi quod in motetis 
nuB hoketos interf enmt P Sed cantos alios multos dimiaenint qnibus in propria 
forma non ntnntor sicnt feoeront antiqoi, at cantns organicos mensnratos vel non 
ubiqne mensnratos, nt est organnm pnmm yel dnplnm de quo f orsan panci sdnnt 
modemomm. Item oondnctos cantns ita pnlcbros, in qnibns tanta delectatio est, 
qni sont ita artiflcialas et delectalnles, dnplices^ triplioes, et qoadraplioes. Item 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 319 

With regard to one of the two kinds of music mentioned by 
De Muris as usurping in his time the position formerly held 
by Organum and Conductua, — ^the Cantilena, — ^we are without 
exact information. That it was at^ that period no new form 
is evident from the reference to it in a passage already quoted 
in this work (p. 176, note) from Ara Cantua Menaurabilia ; not- 
withstanding this fact, however^ the definition of its distinctive 
character is nowhere to be found. From the coupling of the 
Cantilena with the Rondel, not only by the author of Are 
Canttu MensurabUie in the passage just referred to— in cantilenis 
in randellie et in cantu aliquo eccleaiaetico — ^but also^ and with 
a significant addition, by Jean de Muris — in conductie in motelUs 
in fiyis in cantUeme vel randellia^-it has been supposed that 
the cantilena and the rondel were practically identical^ but 
written in the one case to sacred and in the other to secular 
words ^. But the evidence seems scarcely sufficient to support 
the conclusion, and the supposed distinction at least entirely 
disappears if we consider that in the rondels that are best 
known — ^those of Adam de la Hale, the illustration given by 
Walter Odington in his chapter ^ De Rondellis/ and the great 
English example ^Sumer is icumen in/ we find in the first case 
secular words, in the second sacred, and in the third both. 
This fact, however, does not touch the question respecting the 
musical identity of the two forms, which must still remain for 

I 

the present undecided. 

The method of the rondel is described by Walter Odington 
as follows: 'Let a melody, with or without a text, in one of 
the rqpilar modes of rhythm, and as beautiful as possible, 
be devised, and let each voice sing this in turn. And at the 
same time let other melodies be devised to accompany it in the 

hdketos dmiliter daplioet, oontm dnpUoM, tripUoea, qoidraplioes. In hii antiqni 
cantoret altenuitim oastibiit TAeabuity in his ezeroebuitiir, in his delectabuitiir, 
non in solis motetis ant in cantilenis. Debentne illi dici rudes, idiote et ignonntos 
in arte cantandi, qni iUos faciebant vel scinnt cantos et qni ntebantor nH ntontor 
iUisP' i^pMMlMiii JfniiM, Lib. Tii. cap. 44. 
1 9y H. de Coossemakeri see L'Ari HoniMfilgiw, dc, pp. 187-8. 



3ao 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



second and (if there be three voices) in the third voice; let 
them proceed in consonances^ and so that when one voice 
ascends another descends^ and let the third not follow too 
closely the movement of either of the others^ exceot perhaps 
for the sake of greater beauty* And let all of these melodies 
be sung by each voice in turn \^ His illustration of this theory 
is as follows : — 

RONDBLLUS. 



Be Speculatione Mnaioe, cap. De RondeUis. 
(B) . _ 




(0 X- 



lo: 



^ 



t=^ 



-&- 



t 



■2a. 



^ 



g 



■^ 




(O /- 



(>) r- 



^ 



^ 



^^ 



-^ 



3a: 



e 



:pz 



1 



zi 



TJL 




U) . 



(B) ^ 



t 



t 



('r} \ ^ rJ 



22: 



rzEE 



1 



-^ 



U) 



T3L 



-Ul 



O- 



-^u^x^^ 



iS) 



zz 



-»- 



(B) r- 



3 



:aL 



^^ 



(n 



-€^- 



zz 



3a: 



e 



-<9- 



(O 



ipa: 



(P) ^ 



-<9- 



g 



ri .Q 



zz 



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A - Te 

^ ' Rondelli sic timt oomponendi : ezoogitetnr cantna pnlehrior qui pooit, et 
disponatiir Becnndom aliquem modomm pxedictonim, com littera vel rine, et iUe 
cantuB a singulis recitetur; tamen aptentar alii cantos in dnplici ant triplid 
procedendo per oonsonantias, nt dum nnus asoendit, alios descendit» Tel tertios 
ita ot non simol descendat vel asoendat, nisi forte tamen maioris polchritodinis, et 
a singolis Bingalomm cantos recitentor/ Cwsn. ScripU L 247, 



J 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



321 



« ^ 




I fttM It* 



BUk-ter So • ni-ni. 



m r 



zz 



" f» 



X. 



i 



g 



] 



A - ve 



mft-ter Do-mi-ni. 



iq: 



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r'lr f^>J 



•<^ 



i 



EC 



ni. 



W ^ 



3 



zx 



no: 



i 



f I " r 



■8- 



SL 



From this it appears that the Rondel of the learned com- 
poBers was not, as following the analogy of the contemporary 
English Rota and the Round of more modem times we might 
perhaps have been inclined to suppose, a Canon, in which all 
the voices sing one melody, each entering upon it at regular 
intervals after the leader. Here the voices begin together, 
each singing its own melody, which is afterwards exchanged 
for that of some other voice ; moreover, when the three original 
phrases have been sung by all the voices in turn their capabilities 
are seen to be exhausted, and fresh subjects are then invented 
and treated in the same manner as the first. The method, 
therefore, differs considerably from that of the canon, yet the 
final audible result is much the same — a species of double 
coimterpoint, that is to say, in which each phrase of the music 
is displayed in three situations and in three different relations. 



WOOU>KII>OB 



322 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

It should^ however^ be remarked that the true effect of double 
counterpoint would only be produced by thpse choirs in which 
the various parts were sustained by voices of various pitch — 
tenor^ counter-tenor^ and treble for instance^ or bass^ tenor^ and 
counter-tenor — as in more modem music. 

That this method of execution by unequal voices existed, 
probably side by side with the more simple one indicated by 
the clefs employed^ seems clear from several passages in the 
contemporary treatises^ and chiefly in those of Jean de Garlande 
and the Anonymus of the British Museum (Royal MSS.). 
The accoimt given by the Anonymus may perhaps be con- 
sidered as decisive. He says : ^ It is to be observed that three 
methods are adopted by discantors properly so called. The 
first method is by close proportions, and in this the discant 
keeps within the range of a fourth or fifth from the tenor; 
another makes use of the more remote proportions, which are 
contained within the range of an octave from the tenor; the 
third employs proportions still more remote, extending to 
a twelfth^ a double octave, or even more, beyond the range 
of the tenor ^.' ' The first of these methods seems to apply 
either to duplum or to equal voices in greater number; the 
other two can only refer to unequal voices, and in fact describe 
the respective situations of the third and fourth parts, tr^um 
and quadruphtm. Of the more remote ranges, such as the 
triplex diaptuon for instance, the author sa}rs that they were 
rarely written for voices, but that they were commonly em- 
ployed in playing upon organs, and also that even wider ranges 
still were possible to stringed and the smaller wind instruments, 
or upon the 'well-tuned cjnnbals*.* 

^ 'Notaadtim quod duplex (? triplex) est modus faciendi discantum secuuduin 
veroB discantoies. Primus modus est propinquis propoxtionibus^ hoc est infn 
diatessaron vel diapente. Alius modus est ex remotioribus, que continentar sub 
diapason cum predictis. Teitius modus est ex xemotissimis infra diapente com 
diapason, vel duplex diapason, vel ultra,' &c. Cbusse. Script i. 357. 

' ' Ulteriori quidem prooessu, quidem nuo^procedunt usque ad triplex diapason, 
quamvis in oommuni utu se babeat in instrumento organorum, et ulterius alionim 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 323 

No examples of the rondel entirely composed in the manner 
of Odington's model have as yet been brought to lights nor can 
we even be said to be acquainted with any works at all bearing 
that name, except those of Adam de la Hale. These are of 
great interest in many respects^ but in their examination we 
experience a disappointment. Considering their date — for 
Adam de la Hale was a contemporary of the two Francos — it 
might well be expected that these compositions ^ would throw 
some light upon the earlier practice of this kind of music 
— the rondeau as their author writing in the vernacular calls 
it — and we look with interest for some sign of the special 
treatment peculiar to it. Nothing of the sort, however, is to 
be discovered. We find the rondeau exhibited in two kinds, 
one of which is distinguished by its extreme brevity while the 
other is of moderate length, but it is evident that both derive 
their only title to their description from their text, which is in 
fact sometimes written in a rough kind of poetical rondeau 
form, and is in all cases apparently subject to a method of 
continued repetition to the same music, which might thus 
proceed interminably ; musically speaking they are not rondels 
at all, but simple three-part songs, containing no interchange 
of melodies whatever, and no imitation except such as occurs 
within the limits of each separate i>art, from the repetition of 
its own phrases, in accordance with the poetical scheme of the 
text. 

The briefer kind of rondeau may be exhibited in the 
following characteristic example, from a MS. in the Library 
of Cambrai^ given in facsimile by M. de Coussemaker in his 
Histoire de PHarmonie au Moyen Age. 

insfcnunentaniin ; et hoc nnmero cordAnun yel flstalanmi ; vel proat in riinhJiii 
bene loiiaDtibiu, apud bonoi mnaicoe plenios habetnr.* Cousat. Script 1. 363. 

^ See ' (EuTxet completes dn Tnmvb« Adam de la Halle,* by M. de Goniiemakery 
Fteis, 187a. 



Y 2 



3«4 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



Rondeau, 
hareu li mau8. 



BibL de CunbnL 



Adam de la Hale. 



^0 



J.^ J 



2X 



ZZ 



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s 




f 'f f I r fW 



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■^ 



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%J %J 



-<9 



cj rJ- 



J^J J 



-e>- 



-9 



'Hareu li maus d'amer 

M^ochist 

II me fait desirer 

Hareu li maus d'amer 

• Par un douch regarder 

Me priBt 

Hareu li maus d'amer 

M'ochist. 

It would, of course, be perfectly possible to sing this music 
in canonic imitation, in the manner of the modem round, and 
the extreme brevity of the composition even suggests that it 
may have been treated in that manner, since otherwise the per- 
formance would haye been finished within a few moments from 
the time of its commencement. This supposition cannot, how- 
ever, be insisted upon, for it will be obvious from the example 
now to be given that the more extended kind of rondeau will 
not admit of a similar interpretation. 



^ The Bharpa ate given from anotiher venioii of thif rvndMm printed bj 
H. de Coosaemaker in lus complete edition of the works of this oompoier. 

' It is difficnlt to see how these lines, which are irregular, were intended to be 
applied to the regular forms of the music. The difBcoUj does not seem to exist 
in the case of the more extended f onn. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



S'iS 



liiU.deOBinlnmi.. 




m 



Z2 



Rondeau, 
fines amouretes. 

'"^ Adam de la Hale. 



33: 



i 




iq: 



fff¥°=r 



J J \ n J I J JJJ 




23: 



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JJ^'r''° l " f I fii 



zz 



Fi - net 



inour • 6 



- tes at: Diex li ne 



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rffp^ 



19- 



23: 



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23: 



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t 



rl I ^ JjJJ 



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22: 



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tj: 



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23: 



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ul leant let ver - rai. Or man - de - ni m' - ami • et - e 




zz: 



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f RT^^^^^^-fM- 4 J 



i^E-^t^^ rJ cJ 



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Ki est oointe et jo - It - e - te, £t s'eet li sa - ve - von - 



m 



JCL 



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inc. 



^ |JJ rj— j]lgi_ g H--^^ 



:q: 



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-" .J |JfL.J-g j = r,-f-ti^^ 



JZ 



M - te cat 



te - nir ne m'en po - rai. 



Fl - nee, Ac 



326 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



We may of course with certainty include among the rondel 
forms of music the great English Rota (as it is called by its 
author)^ ' Sumer is icumen in/ so often mentioned by historians 
and with ever increasing surprise and admiration. It will here 
be shown both in the shape in which it stands in the original 
and also in that which it exhibits in performance according 
to the author's directions. And first we may examine the 
copy of the MS. 

* 

MS. Harl. (B. M.) 978, fol. 1 1^ 




8a-iner is i-cum-en in, . . Lhnde sing cac-co. Growe^sedandblowe]) 
Per'tpi'Ceehris-ti 'OO'la ^pie dUg-na ' U ' o^ Ca^U-cua a^gri-c^ 



Vt— ^ 



Ik 



^-A 



^=:i=^ 



t 



A 



^=^T= 



5 



med and spring]) ]« w - de nu Sing cue - co. Awe ble - te}» af - ter 
la pto vi ' tis vi - ci ' Fi - li - Non poBr-cens ez'po - su 



k 



5 



4 



H^ 




4 




4 



lomb, hhovLp af - ter oal - ye cu. Bnl - loc ster - te>, bncke ver - te^ 
it Mor ' Hs ex ' i ' ci - 0, Qui cap ' U - vos w - mt - vi - ix» 



h 



1 ♦ , ♦ 1 



4 



^ 



1 M rb 



T 



>^ O " 1 



Ma-riesingcnc-ca. Cno-ca cuc-cn, wel singes fa eac-ea ne swik 
a sup'pli -ct*o Vi • t$ do- not, et M-ctcm 00 - ro - not in ce- 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



327 



k 



4 



5 



Jm na - ver na. 
li 90 ' li ' 0. 



Himc Totam oantare poonint qaataor aooli. A pancioribiu 
autem ^aam atribas Tel aaltem duobiu non debet dici preter 
eoe qui dicttnt pedem. Oanitttr aatem sio: Taoentibut 
ceteris, uniu inonoat com his qui tenent pedem ; et cnm 
▼enerit ad primam notam poet orocem inchoat alim^ et sic 
de ceteris. Singoll rero repanaent ad pansaeioneB scziptas, 
et non alibi, spatlo oniua longe note. 



/ 



k 



x^ 



t 



t:^ 




{Hoe repetit unos qnodens 
opus est, f adens panaaoionem 
in fine. 



i 



Sing cac - cu nu. Sing cue - cu. 



C^l 1 1 



rM 



(Hoc didt aUna, pamana in 
medio et non in fine, sed im- 
mediate repetena prindi^iim. 



Sing cue - cu. Sing cue - cu nu. 



This amazing production^ the sole example probably of its 
species, which exhibits the leading qualities of this kind of 
music, ingenuity and beauty, in a degree still difficult to realize 
as possible to a thirteenth century composer, unites two distinct 
technical methods, namely that of Odington, and that which 
was suggested as possible in the case of the short rondeaux 
of Adam de la Hale. Odington's method is seen in the music 
of the two lower voices ; for this, consisting as it does of two 
melodies which begin together and are afterwards repeatedly 
interchanged, constitutes a true rondelj though restricted to 
the original subjects and in two parts only. The method on 
the other hand which was suggested as possible in the shorter 
rtmdeaux of Adam de la Hale is seen, though now upon 
a magnificent scale, in the four upper parts. These display 
a true canon in the unison; since the melody, consisting of 
two independent stanzas, is begun by the leader alone, and 
taken up by all the rest in turn, each entering at his appointed 
interval of time and upon the same note of the scale. There 
is no break in the canon, which is strict throughout, and ceases 



328 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

only with the last note of the complete melody, sung by the 
leader. The melody of the canon is in the first mode of 
rhythm, alternate long and breve ; that of the rondel or pes 
is in the fifth mode, all longs — with the exception of the 
binary ligatures ; and in both cases the long pause, the panua 
debit a of both modes, is employed. 

Although the original MS. copy of this composition has 
often been made the subject of description and comment^ one 
remarkable feature, the alteration that is to say which has taken 
place in the notation of certain portions, may perhaps still be 
referred to with advantage. 

There are two kinds of alteration in the MS.; alteration after 
erasure, and alteration without erasure. The alterations of the 
first kind were described by Mr. Rockstro, but with no account of 
their effect upon the composition, in his article upon the Rota 
published in Sir G. Grove's Dictionary of Music ; and in the 
notes to the Plainsong Society's voliune. Early Engluh 
Harmony, edited by the present writer, attention was also 
briefly drawn to the alterations without erasure. Both kinds 
may now be rather more fully discussed. 

We may take the latter kind first. It is evident, from 
a consideration of the alterations without erasure, which by 
a more or less adroit stroke of the pen have transformed 
certain lozenges into longs, that the rota when originally 
set out upon the page contained very few longs. The notes 
which occupied the space of a ' perfection,' — ^those of the pes 
and of its echo in the canon, and the notes at the end of 
sections, — ^were alone written according to their real value as 
longs ; all the rest of the music, which is in trochaic rhythm, 
was expressed, except in the case of the two ligatures in the 
pes, by means of simple lozenges. The notes of the greater 
part of the composition therefore had no value of their own, 
but were intended merely to indicate the place of the sound 
in the scale, the fixed metre of the words supplying the necessary 
measures of time. This method — which appears also, applied 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 329 

sometimes to exceedingly complicated metres, in the Florence 
MS. — is obviously closely allied to that of plainsong, and must 
therefore be of great antiquity ; and although it would certainly 
be rash to assume that this fact affords any reason for supposing 
the MS. to be of an earlier date than that now generally 
assigned to it (about 1x40) — since upon this point the palaeo- 
graphical evidence may be considered as conclusive — ^the 
appearance of' this ancient method in the first writing out of 
our example may well suggest a doubt with respect to the 
composition of the rota itself, which has hitherto been 
supposed to be not only of the same date as the MS. in which 
it is found, but the actual invention of the writer whose hand 
has preserved Jt. 

The erasures, and subsequent alterations of the melody, may 
perhaps be ascribed to the reformer of the notation. They are 
probably not earlier, since their author, though he still writes 
lozenges for breves^, expresses the long note of the rhythm by 
means of its proper figure. 

The alterations of both kinds may perhaps best be shown 
in an attempt to restore the canon to the shape in which it 
first appeared in the MS. ; and this may be compared with the 
illustration of its present condition just given on p. 326. 

Probable form of the Canon before the Alterations. 




Sa • mer is i - cam«en ini Lhade sing cnc-ca. Qiowe^ted and Uowe^ 

Fbt • ipi'CBtkriM- U' CO ' la qite dig^na " H » o, d-U-eiM a*^*co- 

* The wf a n nef of the notetioii, having altered thoie loiengef which repreeented 
the long note of rhythniy allowed the remaining onea to stand for breves ; lozenges 
were then nsed also in the same sense in the alterations of the melodj, apparently 
to avoid confosioiL 

* Notes afterwards erased and replaced by others 



i 



330 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



1-=-A 



«fe- 



# ♦ 



5 



^ 



medandBprixigl>the w - de no. Singcac-cu, Awe ble-te^ af-ter 
la pro vi'tiavi-ci-o fi - U - o Ncn pear . cats ex - po • su 



h 



Ht 



lomb, Ihon^ af - ter caX-ve ca. 
U mor^tis ex - t - ct - o. 



Bnl - loo ster > te^, bocke yer - te> 
Qui oop ' ti ' V09 $e ' mi ' vi ' to8 



* * 



* * 



* ♦ 



4 



4 



h 



A ♦ 



5 



4 



4 



ma - ne smg cue - en. 
a amp'pli - ct - o 



Cac - cu cnc- ca,WelBiiig-e8 ^ cuc-ca ne smk 
Fft - fe do - no^ et ae'Cum eo -ro- not in ce - 



^ 



m 



pa na 

U 90 



ver nn. 
li 0. 



Hano rotam oantars powunt qnataor locii. A paudoribua 
aatem qoam a tzibcuTel nltem dtaobu noa debet did preter 
eoe qui dlennt uedem. Canltur autem no: Taoentibiu 
cetexu, aniu inoooat oom hiB qui tenent pedem ; e( cam 
▼enerit ad primam notam post craoem Inchoat aliu, et dc 
de ceteris. Singnli vero repausent ad paoaaoiones seriptai, 
et non alibi, spatio unius longe note. 



fe 



^ 



X=^ 



1 



t:^^ 



Sing cue - ca na. Sing cuc-cu. 



gi»i 1 1 



x±i 



Sing cue - co. Sing cuc-cu nu. 



(Hoo repetit anus qnooieos 
opus est) faoisDS paTuacionem. 
in flue. 



(Hoe didt alios, paoaans in 
medio et non in fine, aed im- 
nifldJate repetans prindpinm. 



* Notes afterwards erased and replaced by otbers. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 331 

The alterations of the melody — ^which it will be seen are 
with one exception confined to passages near the close — 
though naturally of considerable interest, are not of very great 
importance ; all are in some sense improvements, but none 
can be said to affect the essential form of the work, which was 
as distinct before they were made as it is at present. It is 
evident, therefore, that this famous page of MS. does not 
present to us, as has sometimes been supposed, a record of the 
writer's efforts towards the transformation either of an original 
subject or of some previously existing melody into a canon, 
since the music already apparently displayed an almost perfect 
specimen of this form of composition when it was first written 
down. 

And here, before passing on, we may refer for a moment 
to the character of the melody, which, joined to the bucolic 
sentiment of the poem, is so largely responsible for another 
prevailing notion with respect to this composition, namely that 
the subject of the canon, whether actuaUy manipulated in the 
existing MS. or not, is probably a popular pastoral song which 
has been adapted to a contrapuntal purpose. We now see that 
this popular and pastoral character may very well be purely 
accidental ; for in the specimens of Organum purum, for 
instance, and of the Conductus, which have been given in the 
present work — and especially in those of the measured portions 
of Organum — ^we may find in abundance passages exactly similar 
in character to those of the rota. All that we can say therefore 
of the lilting phrases of the rota is that the character which 
they display would appear to be that which is natural and 
proper to the first or Trochaic mode of rhythm, since it seems 
to be necessarily developed by that mode in every kind of 
music in which it is employed, whether ecclesiastical or secular. 

The rendering in modem notation of the music of the rota, 
which next follows, has been influenced in one or two respects 
by a consideration of the fact that the emphatic rhythm of the 
melody was originally expressed by signs destitute of mensural 



33a METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

value^ and that the trochaic metre of the poem affords the only 
key to the notation. In this point of view it has been con- 
sidered probable that the binary ligatures with propriety and 
perfection which are employed in the composition should be 
translated as trochees, and not according to the settled 
mensural rules, which would interpret them as iambi ; and 
this view is apparently sanctioned by Jean de Garlande, 
a theorist contemporary with the writer of the MS., who 
systematically employs such ligatures to express trochees in one 
of his illustrations of the first mode of rhythm, the mode in fact 
in which, as has been said, the canon is written. Furthermore 
it has been considered that the little figure which occurs 
immediately before the cross, consisting of three lozenges of 
which the first has an oblique tractus^ should also, as part of 
the original notation, be translated apart from mensural rule 
and exhibited as three equal breves. It will be found that 
these departures from recent custom create improvements not 
only in the rhythmic flow of the comnosition but often also in 
the harmonic effect. 

Concerning the authorship of the rota and its place of 
origin nothing entirely convincing can be said at present. It 
seems indeed very possible that the page of MS. which contains 
it may have been written in Reading Abbey, and that the 
alterations may also have been made there ; it is even posedble 
that the writer of the MS. may have been — as is now generally 
supposed — one John of Fomsete, though it must be confessed 
that the evidence upon which this attribution rests appears 
upon consideration to be somewhat fantastic. The identifica- 
tion of the scribe, however, is of no real importance unless it 
can be shown that the invention either of the canon, or of the 
alterations, or both, is due to him, and this, though suggested, 
has not as yet been satisfactorily demonstrated^. 

* It should, however, be mentioned that the snggestion that the rote may have 
been actnally oompoeed in Beading derives a certain measnre of support from 
a eonsideration of the words, which Professor J. Wright promoiuices to be 
* thirteenth centniy Wessex ; Berkshire, or Wiltshire.' 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



333 



Rota. 



8UMER IS ICUMEN IX. 



Hot. Brit. M8S. HftrL 978. 




^-^^-TJ-U^-^ 



-& &- 



T 



rrr \ f* rJ i ^ ^ 



8a - mer is i - ca - men in • • • Lhude ling Cn - 




f 



r^ l '' r\ 



•< 




Su - mer is i - 



^ 




\ 




z± 



zc 



o ' 



fa ? 



Sing 




ZZ 



Cu 



ca 



na. 



Bing 



Ca - 



fa y 



o * 



-6»- 



iq: 



Sing 



Ca 



ca 



Sing 



Ca - 



I 



F 



Z2t 



.ca g 



z~gr 



-^ 



<g '-i 



lo: 



ca; 



Grow - eth ted and blow - eth med. And 



e 



^m 



I 



■^ 



o r 



22z:r 



ca - men in ■ • 



Lhode sing 
-O rr 



Ca - ca; 



1 



^ 




Su - mer is i - ca - men in • 



\ 




o * 



33: 



-Qi 



ca; 



Sing 



Ca 



ca 



na. 



lo: 



...^^gJL 



ca * 



■^ 



ca 



no. 



■mg 



Ca 



ca; 



334 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 




*: 



g 



■^ (^ 



Z2: 



22: 



apringththe w - de na; 



Sing 



Ca - 




i 



t 



^^ 



-^ 



e 



■«»- 



:g2 rJ- 



-^ 



zz 



Qrow-eth sed and blow-eth med, Andspringththe 



- de 




i 



T 



^ 



t 



^zzz 



-e^ 



-<s>- 



:a: 



2dt 



-o- 



32: 



i 



tf 



Lhiide sing Ca - cu ; 



g 



:?=: 



-<s- 



30: 



1©- 



Qrow- eth 

3 



sed and 



i 



1: 



± 



g 



zz: 



8a - mer is i - ca - men in . 




Lbode nng' Ca- 



i 



tPiez 



< g • 



Z3: 



33: 



sing 



Ca 



ca; 



Sing 



Cu - 



-G- 



T±. 



TZ 



TJL 



Sing 



22: 



Ca 



ca 



na. 



sing 



Cu - 



o , 



I 



/ 



zz 



zi 



■^ 



-G- 



zz 



1 



zi 



caj 



Awe 



ble - teth af - ter lomb^Uioatb 



-Q- 



ZZ 



\ 



na: 



Sing 



Ca 



CO. 



i 



^ 



S 



-«►■ 



231 



± 



ZZ 



blow - etb med snd flpringth the w - de 



na; 



i 



3 



i 



3 



zz 



zz 



\ 



zz 



tfa; 



Grow - eth sed and blow - eth med, and 



i 



zz: 



zz 



-&- 



^^ 



zz 



ca 



na, 



sing 



Ca 



ca; 



ZZ 




ZZZZ 



ca; 



Sing 



Ca 



ZZ 
ca 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



335 



/ 




I 



221 



lOL 



-& 



zz: 



g^ tn 



-^ 



ter cal - ve ca; 



Bal - loc ster-teth, 



i 




M=^— r^ 



X 



-Gh 



33: 



ja: 



-<g r-J - 



TiF 



33: 



:a 



I 



Awe ble • teth af - ter lomb, Lhouth af - ter cal - ye 




-©— T- 



^ 



€? • 



za: 



T 



z:^: 



-^ 



a 



Sing 



Cu 



CQ. 



Awe 



ble-tetb 




o . 



lo: 



1 



— ^>- 



Q • 



gpringtbtbe w - de nn; 



Sing 



Cu 




S 



^ 



ZC 



Sing 



-©- 



r~rr 



Cu 



cu 



-o 



nu. 



^ « 



sing 



-G»- 



Cu - 




^=gz: 



-^9- 



J3l 



-e^- 



•ing 



Cu 



cu 



Sing 



Cu - 



72: 



un: 



1 



3^ 1 Q — r 



romzp: 



-o- 



± 



bucke 



Ter - tetby Hu - rie ling Cu • cu. 



J. 



^ 



-JOL 



.cj fd 



-^ 



13: 



? 



■^9 



:^ 



CU; 



Bul - loc tter - tetb bucke ver - tetb. 



3 



r 



22 



^'* I 



?a: 



zz 



zd.i 



— ^> 



:t: 



zz: 



af - ter lomb^ Lboutb af - ter cal - ve cu 



-r-T 



i 



23: 



zt 



-o 



3a: 



:pa: 



± 



-o- 



cu. 



Awe 



ble - tetb af - ter lomb, Lboutb 



ZX 



CU 



zz 



Sing 



Cu 



X 



irz: 
cu 



-^ 



nn. 



cu 



nu. 



3 



mMB. 



jEZ 



ling 



Q ' 



Cu 



33: 



CU! 



33« 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



/ 




r= 



zz 



^ 



V 



zt 



3 



zz: 




Cuo 



-^ 



CO. 



Cac 



en. 



wel nog - ei tha 



:?z 



7^ 



t 



± 



± 



zz 



-&- 



i 



Ma - rie nag Cu - ca. 



Ca 



ca. 




^ 



T- 



lOLlIEt 



-&- 



"P f^ 



I 



rr ^1" ^M 



Bol - loc tter - teth, bncke ver • teth. Ma • rie mng Ca - 



^^ 



i 



Jle, ■=^1 




'W^ 



-&- 



o * 



o r. 



af - ter cal - ve oa. 



Bal-loc ster-teth. 




S 



io: 



-<5>— 5- 



3a: 



1 



3a: 



-^ 



sing 



Ca 



ca 



Sing 



Ca - 




i 



t 



^ • 



■^ 



3a: 



Q * 



-^- 



Sing 



Ca 



ca 



na. 



nng 



Ca 



i 



^ 



i 



-«- 



3 



la « 



3a: 



« 



Cuo 



ca, Ne Bwik tha n» - ver 



i 



i 



na. 



I 



T 



3a: 



« 



■^ 



3a: 



< 



Ca 



ca, Wel singes tha Cao - ca. 



I 



zz: 



tt 



\ 



ca. 



3a: 



1 



1 



Sing 



Ca 



PT-^=f" 



CO. 



I 



bucke ver - teth, Hu - rie sing Co - ca. 



ca 



3a: 



ca; 



i 



na. 



:a: 



Bing 



Sing 



^>- 



Ca 



■-<5>- 

Ca 



«: 



ca. 



CO. 



i 
I 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



337 



CLOSING PORTION OF EABLIBB VEBSION. 
* * * * * 






-^ 



t^- 



is: 




Ma - lie sing Coo - en. 



T- 



Cuc 



m 



£ 



^ 



? 



■^ 



zz: 



g 



js: 



i 




Bui - loc ster - teth, bncke 



ver - teth, Ha - rie 



S 



6^ 



zs: 



Z2 



zz 



af - ter cal • ve 



:n: 




CO. 



Bol - loc 



t—^' ^ '— ^ 



Tjpr. 



-G- 



-&- 



d 



xt. 



-&- 



in: 



± 



zz 




Awe 



ble - teth af - ter lomb^ Lhouth af - ter 



T 



t 



jCL 



-&- 



zi 



za: 



Sing 




32: 



Cac 



ca 



nu. 



Sing 



ZZ 



ZZ 



32: 



Sing 



Cac 



CO* 



Sing 



i 



-c^ 



-<^ 



t 



ISC 



zz 



ca. 



Cac 



ca 



Wei sing - es tha Cao - 

-^ ; r-= r r—(9- 



t 



zz 



ling Cac - ca 



Cac 



ca. 



Cac 



S 



rr^r 



-© — ^ 



zc 



zz 



i 



:t 



iter - teth, bucke ver - teth. Ha - rie ting Coe • ca 



T 



S 



ice: 



?a= 



zz 



zz 



zi: 



-^ 



± 



cal - ve 



ca. 



Bui - loc ster • teth, backe 



-^ 



zz: 



Q « 



lET 



zz 



Cac 



ca. 



Sing 



Cac 



ca 



^ 



ZZ 



zz 



zz 



-€^ 



Coo 

WOOLDSIDOS 



ca 



na 



Sing 



Cue 



ca« 



338 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 




^ 



lOi 



E 



I 



zz 



ne 



Bwik thu 



-=^ Gh- 

DA - ver na. 






g 



zz 



i 



za: 



Wei 



ung - « 



tha 



ca 



i 




Cuo 



cu. 






I 



* 



■<^ 



?a: 



Z2: 



S 



za: 




yer - teth« 21a - rie sing Cue - ctu 



I 



t 



3 



zx 



■^ 



zz 




no. 



Sing 



Coo 



CO. 



■JOL 



T3L 



1 



Sing 



Cuo 



CO. 



Two forms of composition still remain to be noticed, Organum 
communiter sumptumy and the Motett. 

As r^ards the first it must be said that its nature cannot at 
present be indicated with certainty. Hitherto we have been 
fortunate upon the whole in our identifications; but the cir- 
cumstance through which we were enabled partly to define and 
to exhibit Organum ptarum and Conductua — namely the mention 
in a contemporary treatise of individual compositions still in 
existence, as examples of those forms, has no parallel in this 
occasion, since no viriter refers to individual compositions of 
Organum communiter sumptum. Indeed the only definite mention 
of this form by name, which occurs in Ars Cantus MensurabiUsy 
is purely general, and of no use to us in the absence of specimens; 
while on the other hand, in the music itself of this period which 
has been preserved, we do not at present perceive any class of 
works which might appear from their nature to constitute the 
examples of which we stand in need. 

Organum communiter sumptum is included by the author of 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 339 

At9 Cantus Mensurabilis among those forms of composition 
in which all the parts have the same words ^^ and is further 
defined as ^an ecclesiastical cantus measured in time'^; it is 
contrasted moreover with Organum purum velproprie sumptum, 
in which only the tenor has words and the notes of the plain* 
song are of indefinite length. Tet it is not to be founds as we 
might perhaps have been inclined to suppose^ in the measured 
portions of such compositions as ludea et lerusalem or Con^ 
stantes esioiCy since these do not fulfil the requisite conditions 
with respect to the words; nor^ considering that organum 
communUer sumptum is probably the same as the organum 
rectum of Jean de 6a.rlande * and the 'pure' organum of 2)»- 
cantus Posiiio Vidgaris^, can we safely identify it with the 
old ecclesiastical organum of note against note in concords and 
contrary movement^ since organum rectum and 'pure ' organum 
would seem to be clearly described in the treatises as displaying 
the plainsong in perfect longs^ and the discant in imperfect 
longs and breves. It must be confessed^ however, that this 
method also would seem to be inconsistent with the employ- 
ment of the same words in all the parts. 

It would serve no useful purpose, in the present state of 
our knowledge, to discuss this matter further; we may proceed 
therefore at once to the examination of the motett, concerning 
which, fortunately, our information is if not exhaustive, at 
least comparatively considerable. 

The motett was distinguished, apparently, by two well 
marked peculiarities, one of which is indicated in Ars Cantus 
MensurabUis, where in the list of musical forms Motetus 
appears as the only member of a class in which each voice 
has its own special words, and the other in the earlier treatise 
Discantua Pontio Vulgaris, where this kind of composition 
is said to be made upon a measured cantus firmus whose notes 
are arranged in certain fixed forms^ This latter view is also 

^ Seep. 176 of tbe present work. > Ibid, i^ * Ibid. 178-9. * Ibid. 178. 
' 'Motetiif vero ett niper determlnatM notaa firmi cantiu menfontM/ Ac 
CbMMf. Ser^ L 96. 2 % 



340 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

that of Walter Odington^ who moreover adds the information 
that the substance of the tenor must be some known song^ 
A separate text for each voice^ then, and a tenor arranged in 
definite recurring figures^ are the distinctive features of the 
motett ; and of these the latter^ as most important in our 
immediate point of view, may first be considered. 

Two examples of the tenors of motetts, displaying fixed 
recurring forms throughout, have already been given in this 
work (pp. 143-4}, and in the remarks also by which these were 
accompanied a motive was suggested for the employment of 
the method, namely the desire to communicate life and meaning 
to melodies without words, in metrical rhythm. The actual 
appearance and probable intention of these fixed figures, there- 
fore, being to some extent known to the reader, we may pro- 
ceed to demonstrate the system of which they are a part, and 
through which alone they perform their office. 

This system was known to the treatise writers as the system 
of ardines, or regular arbitrary dispositions of the contents of 
the rhythmic mode. It corresponds roughly to the poet^s 
treatment of the metrical part of verse, and consists in a de- 
marcation of the contents of the mode, by means of pauses, 
in sections of various lengthy and thus the dietre is brought 
to express, apart from words, distinct and intelligible ideas. 

The nature of the process may be indicated in the following 
manner :— 

1 a 3 4 

Q jOiro Q Q II Q Q Q jO li <= > Q Q |P^ g»~ti Ar. 

It will be obvious that here two kinds of musical ideas, 
represented by the first and thircT of these ordines on the one 
hand and the second and fourtl^on the other, are expressed; 
in the first kind the phrase ends with the Seconal or weak beat 
of the foot, while in the other it returns to the first or strong 

■ 

^ ' Moteti finnt cum littera in aliquo modomm. Samatar aliqnii cantaa notof 
pro tenore, aptu melo, et in certo modo diBponatnr.' CSimMf. SaipL i. 246. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



341 



beat ; and since the idea conveyed by the latter method is the 
more complete and satisfactory of the two, a mode divided into 
or dines of this construction is called perfect y while the opposite 
method^ in which the ordo ends with the weak beat^ constitutes 
the mode as imperfect^. The effect produced by the applica- 
tion of this system to melodies in the first five rhythmic modes 
is here shown. 

ORDINES OF THE MODES PERFECT AND IMPERFECT. 



Perfect. 



Ordo I. 



F1B8T Modi. 



t:^r-"— P- 



22: 



?3= 



"JX 



zx 



-€^ 



TH 



Imperfect. 



&c. 





■ 


" p 


—r- 


_u_ 


■ 


-4S? — p-^ 


>*-• ' 








i 




1 










1 







&c 



Perfect 



Sbookd Mods. 



/^\. tn -■ 


\~r' 1 


rs — " — 1 




i'j ^^' 


v-m n 


•-©j-l- 


-P^ — 


_i — _i_ 


U^=^ 




4^-! 



\Balaaifn,'] 
Imperfect 



&c. 



\^ f^JU 


■ ■ 


1 


■ . 


■I ■" 


■ . 


^P=^ 

















&c. 



Perfect 



Thibd Modi. 



YnV 


■ 


ra 1 














k>-'" j-^ • 




■c-^" • ■ 


. 


ra • 


^^ 


<^ • 


■ 


\J^ c? 


























U 1 







Imperfect 



&c. 



(<*y. ^ . 


iP fj 1 




■ - 


^^ • 


T»""jr3 


~1~" 


■ . 


r^ . 


F^ o^n 












r *^ 








1 












, , 











' ' Hodni perfectiis dicitnr ene, qnmdocninqne itifc est quod aliqaifmodiu desinit 
per talem qnantitAtem Tel per talem modurn, ucnti per illam qua ineipit Didtor 
modus perfectus, ut dicatnr prima longa, altera brevis, et altera looga ; et tic de 
singalU modit vel maneriebos. OmiiiB modu dicitur imperfectus qaandoeamqne 
ita est, quod aliquit modiif desinit per aliam quantitatem qnam illam qua ineipit ; 
Qt cum dicatnr prima longa, altera brevis, altera longa et altera breris/ J. de 
Qarlande, Coubu. SeripL i. 176. 



34a 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



Peifeefe. 



Foil MTU, Modi* 



R^r^ 



I 



J rj 



e 



I 



JlUTT 



I 



-»-=- 



ICE 



JOL 



lEegnat] 
Imperfect. 



Ac 



^^ rJ ^^ 


^^ • 


JL- ■ 


"1 


F=^ 


*-^ • 


• ■■. 


-I" 


t^ 


^ 



&C. 



FeiTecti 



Fdth Modb. 



'7r^"' ■ "■■ 


^_ 










^^ 


n 


(w. ,-~ • 


■t^ • 


.^>^ * 


1 




.^i-k * 


t^ « 


' 11 






t^ 




rj • 


t^ 




II 
















•1 



ISiuB,] 
Iinperfect. 



Slc 



1^' 














x-u n 


fw. j-^ • 


rj • 


I 


^p-% 




■ 


.^•^ • 


^^ • II 


"<i/ Cj* 






^^ • 


rj • 




tj 


II 
















u 



&c 



Peirecta 



Ordo 11. 

FntBT Modi. 



^7?5^■' — "'"■ f^"i 


r—a Sn 


r -n -] 


I ^^ — 1 


1 — ^3 — p^n 


1 — "> n 


(Sd; — f— 


1 




-" — F- 


1 — 


— ^ 












•1 



[Balaam.] 
Imperfect 



&c. 



[(g); *^^ I 



is: 



zc 



rr^t" 



ZEE 



e 



■i^- 



&c 



Peifect* 



Sbooitd Modi. 



^^ 



I rj 



-&- 



I 



7^ 



T^ 



[Bataom.] 
Imperfect. 



Ac. 






Ac 



Perfect* 



Thzbo Modi. 



Kg); ^-4£ 



^§ 



sc 



■^-T- 



^ 



zz: 



Imperfect. 



&c 



/?»^* 


rP — ^ — 1 












rs — " — n 


vS^' O ' 


-1 


^^ • 


r-^ Q 


_. 1 . 


• 


a • 


1^ 








i . . 








• 1 



Ac 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



343 



Ptofaet 



6>- 



i r^ rj 



FOITBTH MODB. 



g 



^ 



g 



zz 



■^-r 



IxnporfiBcta 



&C. 




g 



zz 



-<5>- 



32: 



1 



2i: 



221 



g 



&C. 



Perfect 



FivTH Mods. 



|.(g2: o » 1 


-<g . 


-«-^ 


ra . 


-.s^ 


1 


-^ — 


ra . 


=* 



Imperfect. 



Ac 



fr^* 


—J 










.«.-> • 


rj » 






v>^* in • 


^^ • 


^^1 




k 


.^-v • 






^—^ 


I 


>-^ c? 




t^w* • 


n • 




c^ 






^ • 

























&c. 



Perfect. 



Ordo III. 



FisST HoDa. 



r/^*"~" — P — 1 


1 — " — 7^ — 1 


« ■ "1 


.«"^ 


1 — " gi n 


\Qb — ! — 


f- 


r- 


^ 


f— 1 






1 




• 



[Balaam.] 
Imperfect 



&c. 



2a: 



23! 



22: 



:?n: 



zz 



a 




-<^ 



g 



&C. 



I'lerfect 



Sbooitd Hodb. 



?3: 



^ 



^j 11 



10- 



:ez: 



[Botaom.] 
Imperfect 



&c. 



\^\' " 1 


N=^=^ 


K^=°=1 


■ 


[=F^^ 


_f^C^ 



&C. 



Perfect 



Thibd Mosb. 



r/Rs« 


Fl^ — " — 1 


|— — r ] 






rs — " — 1 




T 


[(g; Q * 


r 




tf=^-^ 


a • 


^ — 


■ 


hM 



[Chmi^Me.] 
Imperfect 



&c 





rf® — ''^^ — 1 








ns — " — 






WSJ-©-^- 


r 


* 




a • 


^ 


"1 





















kc 



344 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



Ffetfeet 



FOUBTH MODK. 



[^7J^ 


Q • 


1 


^ ' 


^p^ 


o • 


-1 


^1 



Imperfect. 



&C. 



iw: J r^ 


-e»-!- 


^ " 


^ • 


-p — «^ 


CJ • 


1 


. . 1 


\-*^ rJ •"• 




1 




r 






1 










,L . ,:__ 






J 



&c 



Perfect. 



Fifth Modi. 



/■r^» 










.^v • 


rj * — 


1 


fw. ^ • 


^^^ • 






iTk * 


^^ 




■ 1 






€j* • 


rj • 


t^ 






t 
















1 



[J^tltfL] 

Imperfect 



&c. 



/W\' ■ '■■ 












f 


\>-'' i-^ • 


,_ -C^ , ^ u 


^^ 




iTj • 


"v-r • 


I 1 






^'' • 


r^ • 


c^ 




t 














1 



Ac. 

Such then being the system of ordines or modal phrases 
which governs the external form of the tenor of the motett, 
we may next proceed to deal with the question which naturally 
arises respecting this part of the composition — ^what is the 
nature of its substance^ and from whence is it derived ? 

The question is answered by Jean de Grarlande^ who defines 
the chief points — ^the nature of the substance, its origin, and 
its relation to the external form, in precise though apparently 
enigmatic words. His account may first be given, and after- 
wards we may undertake its elucidation. ^The ordoy' he says, 
' proceeds from an oriffinal, and the original from a root. The 
root consists of a given cantus ^.' His example follows : — 



Ik 



5 



4 



5 



Lotus, 



&C. 



^ 



r-"-f^ 



32: 



■p — " — S ^ 



jo: 



-!S>- 



la: 



3a: 



-i&- 






JOL 



e 



zz 



& P 3 g? 



zz 



221 



* 'Ordo modomm est nnmemi ponctonim ante pamstioiiem ; iste ordo di^iditor 
in primum, lecnndmn et tertium, &c. Oxdo antem prooedit ab nno principio; 
principjom a radice. Badiz est qoilibet cantns prime datos.* Coiisse. Script i. 98. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 345 

From this example we perceive that the author has taken 
a passage^ apparently of plainsong, as his root^ and^ regardless 
of its former purpose and meanings has rearranged it in a mode 
of rhythm; and in this form it becomes the original, from 
which ordines may be derived by means of interpolated pauses 
at proper intervals. The particular fragment of plainsong here 
utilized is evidently indicated by the word ' Latus/ and for the 
explanation of this we must go to the Anonymus of the 
British Museum, the commentator of Jean de Garlande^, 
who has dealt rather more fully than his master with this 
question, and who indeed actually describes the method of 
proceeding. 

From the treatise of the Anonymus it appears that ^ Latus ^ 
was the name of one of the tropes, or long florid passages of 
plainsong unbroken by pauses and taken upon a single syllable 
of text, which are found so frequently in the ritual music of 
the church ; these received as names' the syllables upon which 
they occurred in the ecclesiastical cantus, and retained them 
even after their conversion to the purposes of measured music. 
The words of this author are sufficiently clear. ^Take then,' 
he says, ^ one of these tropes, such, for instance, as Latus which 
is obtained from the antiphon Immolatus est ChristuSy and 
write the notes down; then afterwards set them out in other 
figures, unless those in which they appear should be sufficient, 
as best suits the modal ordo that you desire.' 

EUsewhere, in describing the composition of a discant in the 
first mode, the author gives an even more explicit account of 
the method. ^ Let the tenor be thus : F, G, F, D, F, followed 
by the breve pause, then* F, F, A, 6, F, with the breve pause ; 

* Hnch of the purely technical initnietion given hy the Anonymiis ii little 
more than a full and clear exposition of the teaching of Jean de Qarlande. Yet» 
strangely enough, the Anonymns, who has recorded the names of so many of the 
musicians of this period, and is in fact the only author of the time who seems 
to have possessed any historical knowledge worth speaking of, is apparently 
ignoiant of the name of the man upon whose doctrine his own is founded. He 
knows de Garhmde only as ' the author of the treatise which hegins Hobito df ipsa 
platia mtisioa qiu immtnmmiMU» retpecUvi didtur' 



34^ 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



and by this we may understand the second ordo of the first 
mode to be intended. And it is called OmneSy like its root 
which is extracted from Viderunt Omnes; and so, being re- 
peated twice, three times, or more, it will be sufficient so far as 
the tenor is concerned/ Below will be found the passage (from 
the Gradual for Christmas Day) to which the author refers, and 
also the tenor made from it according to his directions. 




Yi -de-runt Om - 



- nes 



fi-nes 



ter - 



m 



W: o r^ 



-<s»- 



-€>- 



f£»- 



-&- 



-«©- 



The repetitions of the subject here recommended are a necessary 
feature of the process. Few tropes were in themselves of 
sufficient length to ser\'e as material for the whole of the tenor 
of a motett unless set out in very long notes, as for instance in 
the Motett Radix veniae, presently to be given in this work, 
where Latua appears in an extraneous mode composed of longs 
and double longs. As a rule, therefore, the subject was repeated 
at least once. This might be done either openly or in a dis- 
guised manner; in the former case the ordineswere so arranged 
that the last notes of the subject coincided with the conclusion 
of an ordo and the beginning of the next ordo with the first 
notes of the repetition, in the latter the end of the subject and 
the beginning of the repetition were made to occur within the 
limits of an ordoy thus effectually concealing the fact of repeti- 
tion in the ordines which followed, and giving to notes already 
heard, in the same sequence as before but now differently 
divided, the appearance of complete novelty. 

A few more examples of the tropes used as tenors, with their 
reconstruction in modal form, may be given. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



347 



RBGNAT. 



linm Ou AtttMa tf Ott Aimai^on. 



^ 



1 



1 



' ft a ' ^** a ' I , a ' fj i ' ^** i ' ^ ^-^ 



^ 



««8: 



DAt 



An Extraneons Mode founded on the fifth. 

From the Motett Fioe de Spina, Montpellier MS., foL 78^ 



rr-f 1 






















I 








■ 


■m im 










i*^ • 


^^ • 




%si/ vi; 




• 




ri • 


t^ 


t^ 




%/ %/ -^. . 


^n • 















iBegnat'] 

























■ 








■ 


|r3 • 


^3 • 








iTi • 


i^~k * 








I'l • 




a • 




^*^ 

























^ 


■ 








1 






^ii^^ S 




— C^ — £ 


. 


ra • 





■ — 1 



&C. 



MANERE. 



iVom ih$ Gradual qf 8. John Evanffdist, 




Ma-ne-re 



Fifth Mode F^ect, tnt Ordo. 

From tho Motett Demtnant Gtami Jaie, Montpellier MS., foL lii^ 



Jf M — ^-» * 


gj • 


^^ • 


I 


- a— r- 


D" • 




■ 


mm 












-€>-^ 




u u 

















[JfOMrf.] 



348 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



1 J?J? ,, . 1 








— Q—i 


f^t — li 




■■ ■ 1 


fKfh '^'^ 
















Vu IM/ 






















1*!) • 




T 


^"^ • 






rj • 1 


t^ 


I 








■ 


.o-k • 
































• 


* 


• 




• 


• 


• 


• 


1 


• 




• • 




• < 


• 


• • 





g3 > 








C^ 




ra • 


■ 






















^ 



Ac 



LAQUELS. 



From 1h$ Qfudual <^ Holy Innocents. 




C ,3 Pi-r*-^ 



^ 



^;^» 



w^ 



La-que-UB 



Fifth Mode Perfect, second Ordo, 
Db Gablaitdb'b example. 



nP^l? 1 




















r3 • 


f • 


■ 


rj . 1 


rn rn 


r3 • 


r!3 • 










VL' VL/ rj • 














c/i/ 















1 















^«>v 


c-r a' 








■ 


r3 • 


^"^ • 




r3 • 1 




rj • 1 












Ci • 



















" 








■ 




tl • 




n • 








L .a • , 









Ac 



But not only the long florid passages of ornament^ without 
words^ occurring in the music of the ritual, were made to serve 
as subjects for the tenors of motetts ; the substance itself of 
the cantus also frequently performed this office, as will be seen 
from the following examples : — 



' Two notes of the root hsTB been omitted here. 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



349 



BALAAM. 



g 




Third Section qf the Sequence EpipJianiam Domino, 






c. 




. ■ 




■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 


■ ■ ■ 


■ 




• 




■ ■ ■ 






■ 



Ba - la - am de quo Ta - ti - ci - nans £x - i - bit ex la - cob 



■ ■ " " ■ . 



ra . ti . lanfl in - quit stel - la» 

First Mode Perfect, first Ordo. 

From the Motett Li dog terminee, MontpelUer MS., foL 249^ 



r-7T? n 












iftrfh — ?5 — ^"" 


• 


u 


■ 


U 




vpiM/ ^ 




i.CJ.. ^ 


L^ 1 


L u ,.^ 





zz 



[Balaam.] 



" T~ 












1 r~\ 


^J 


* 


^ 


■ 


^ 


»«_ 


r^ ei 


• • 


• • 


• ■ 


• • 


1— a 2J 

• • 


• • 


• • • 



■^ G- 



iq: 



Q rj 



&C. 



:^ 



ANGELUS. 

Atttiuia verse (/ Easter Monday, 



1 




w 



3^ 



>^-^ 



An - ge-lofl Do-mi-ni de-icen - - - 

First Mode Perfect, first Ordo, 

From the Motett Oaude Chorus omnfuMf Montpellier MS., fol. 71^ 



lAnffdus,] 



zz 



TSl 



is: 



m 



-&■ 



zc 



^ 



r~B 



dit de ee • lo. 



\^ M eJI 


ra . 


f=^=f^ 


f3 


k^=ri 


^^ ■ 



.Ti. 



^ 



:s: 



7^ 



± 



sc 



Ac 



> This is the end of the subject and be^nning of the repetition. Here the fact 
is disgoised, bat at its next o e c n rrence a few notes are altered in time in order to 
bring the subject once more to its original position, and so to a proper conclusion. 



35© 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



BBATA VI8CBBA. 
Commiinbm <n Ham (ff (k« Asnuivlim, 





^-V-^ 



■ M^ «^ 



Be-a-tft ^is-oe - - xa Ma -ri-e vir- -gi- nia. 



FLfth Mode Perf ect» fint Ordo. 

From the Motett BeeUa Vimura, Montpellier MS.^ fd. 8i^ 



(^' Q ' I ^ ' I ^ - I ■ I f-* ' I ^ ' I " * I ■ 



[30ato «<«O0ra.] 











"" 








Cj' • 


^5 • 


^•^ • 


■ 


r3 • 


fa • 


.^p*^ • 


■ 






— Car- 








^^ 





















• • 


• 


• • 


• • 


• 


• • 


• • 


• 








--■ 








I 


































■ • 


• 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 



ra • '1 


■ ■ ■ 


^^ * — 


I "■ ■ 


a • 


- 
























^^ 



^c. 



IN 8ECULUM. 

From the Qradual qf EoBter Bay. 




In se 



ca-lam ...... 



FoDiih Mode Imperfect^ first Ordo. 

From the Motett In cmMfraJtrt iuo, Montpellier MS., foL 66^ 




zz 



i 



J f3 



-«- 



g 



m 



xz 



g 



[In Meiitem.] 



^ 



3 



g 



3s: 



32: 



S 



3a: 



:s: 



SE 



sa: 



^ 


u^ 


ra . 




r^ ■ 


1 <s^ 


■ 


n ~i 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 351 

We have now obtained a fairly clear idea of the nature of the 
music written for the tenor in the motett. We recognize its 
origin in the ritual music of the Churchy and we perceive the 
method also by which it has been brought to exhibit its 
characteristic form in measured music ; we may therefore next 
proceed to consider for a moment the questions relating to the 
management of the words which belong to it. 

The text of the tenor is represented almost ahvays in the 
motett by a syllable, or word, or at most two words, placed 
under the opening notes, by way of indication. Tet we have 
seen that the quantity of text existing in the root from which 
the tenor is taken may vary considerably in different cases. 
It may in fact consist not only of a single syllable or a single 
word, but may also include a whole sentence, or even — as in 
Balaam — a complete section of a composition in which every 
note has a syllable of text. In what sense then are we to 
imderstand the gmding word in the tenor of the motett ? 
Does it imply a reference to the complete words of the root, 
and are these, whether many or few in number, supposed to be 
sung throughout to their proper notes in the tenor, from the 
memory of the experienced singer? Or is it to be taken 
literally, and are we to suppose that even when many of the 
notes in the original passage have words, only the initial or 
guiding word or phrase is to be regarded, and the whole of the 
tenor then carried upon a single syllable ? 

The main question may perhaps be decided by a reference 
to the fact that the tenor of the motett is invariably written, 
in all modes which admit of the practice, in ligature; even in 
the fifth mode, consisting of perfect longs, the first ordo of the 
perfect — a very popular form of tenor — ^was always, before the 
time of Franco, represented by the ternary ligature with pro- 
priety and perfection proper to the fourth mode. Therefore, 
considering that the existence itself of a ligature depends upon its 
representation of a modulated but unbroken sound, it is clear that 
a passage written in ligatiu^ throjighout is from banning to end 



35» METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

^sine littera.^ Nor does the separation of the ligatures by 
means of pauses appear to afford any means of escape from 
this conclusion, for even if we suppose the text to be now set 
out above the detached figures of the tenor, syllable by syllable, 
it is evident that the words in that case would no longer, 
except by accident, fall upon the notes proper to them in the 
plainsong; the method, therefore, can scarcely have been per- 
missible, since the relation of words and notes in the plainsong 
would seem to have been always strictly respected by the 
composers of mensural music. It would appear then as 
probable that the words in a root containing much text were 
abandoned, and the tenor merely vocalized, as in those cases 
in which the subject was derived from a single syllable of the 
cantua. 

In a third class of subject, however, with texts that is to say 
of two or three syllables only, we may perhaps perceive the 
possibility of a different treatment. It seems not improbable, 
for instance, that in such tenors as those in our examples 
corresponding to the roots La - - tus, Om - - nes. Beg - - na/, 
both syllables may have been sung in their proper places upon 
the first and last notes of the passage. This notion is suggested 
by a method of writing the guiding word which has been 
adopted in the Florence MS. There, for instance, m the 
tenors formed upon the roots Tan - - gtMim, Quo - - m. 
La ' ' tu8y the two syllables are written under the first and 
last ordines of the notation, as in the plainsong. In Bethleem, 
however, Doce^ and Noatrumy are given, like the titles in 
M. de CJoussemaker's extracts from the Montpellier MS., at 
the beginning of the tenor, the syllables not divided. 

As regards the treatment of words of three syllables, we again 
apparently have the authority of the Florence MS. for supposing 
that the arrangement in the plainsong might be followed. We 
there find a tenor, Gh - - rt - a, in which the first syllable 
carries the whole of the theme except the last two notes, which 
are received by the final syllables ; and this also is the arrange- 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



353 



ment of the corresponding plainsong. We may therefore not 
unreasonably suppose that in our examples founded upon the 
roots Ma ^ne^re . . . yLa^ que ^us . . . , the first two syllables 
might be given to the corresponding notes of the tenor, and 
the remainder of the passage vocalized upon the third syllable^ 
as in the plainsong. 

We may conclude our notice of this subject with a very 
striking example of the possible utilization of three syllables in 
the tenor, which will be found in the Florence MS., foL 383 \ 
It will be observed that the second syllable is differently placed 
in root and tenor, but the difference is probably not intentional^ 
and is moreover quite unimportant. 



h-^ 



DOMINO, 

I^rom the Oradual qf Easter Tunday, 



«-4 



iXfl 3\ n, Pi \ \ 



Do 



xm 



no 



1 J> J? — ^ 1 




f» a 








1 sn 


■fe(jh 




\r \ 








-^ — 


%y %J 















Do 



mi 



1 — " 1 


1— — r — f— 1 


r" 


[-«■■■ -o 


r" — 1 




rrs 


1— : ra-n 


t_ 


— ^ 




4 




CJ • 




\rj '■* 
















1 



no 





<-> . — 

• 


• • 


• • 


• • 


. • 



The tenor of the motett, then, being provided according to 
the method just described, the discant was next made upon 
it, and afterwards the triplum, or upper part. Respecting the 
nature of these parts there is little that is new to be said. Thdr 
phrases still display the bold metrical rhythms, to which we 
have become accustomed in other forms of composition, rhythms 



WOOLOBIDOB 



A a 



354 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

more striking in character and more obviously suggestive of 
poetical words than those which were as a rule adopted for the 
tenor. But in other respects — ^in the relation of the upper 
parts to the tenor, for instance— certain peculiarities may be 

» 

observed, which, considering that the motett was the only form 
of serious composition of this period destined to survive, are 
interesting, from their revelation of something approaching a 
capacity for development in the form itself, and a sense of 
purely musical arrangement in the composers. 

The first of these peculiarities to be noticed, since it is 
characteristic of the earliest examples, is the dose correspon- 
dence between the tenor and the upper parts in respect of 
phrasing. The phrase or section of the upper parts is made 
to correspond generally to two figures of the tenor, so that the 
tenor pauses alternately alone and in company with the discant 
and triplum ; sometimes, however, all the voices pause together 
after each figure of the tenor, and sometimes only after three 
or four, according to the lei\gth of thdr respective phrases. 
And this in the earliest period seems to have been the only 
e3dsting notion of a method for establishing musical relation — 
apart from that which exists through the harmonic agreement — 
between all the parts. In the two upper parts we again find 
the mutual rehition created by occasional imitation and inter- 
change of phrase with which we are already familiar in organvm 
and conductus, but nothing of this sort exists between the 
upper voices and the tenor. 

A rehition of another kind between the tenor and the upper 
voices is, however, sometimes created through the words of the 
various parts in the motett, by means of a periodical simul- 
taneous agreement in the vowel-sounds uttered by the voices. 
An instance of this may be seen in the second of our illustra- 
tions here following, the Motett Qui »ervare, where the tenor 
vocalizes throughout upon the syllable He ; it will be observed 
that in the poem which was afterwards written to accompany 
the discant of the motett, in the long syllable at the end of ^ 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 355 

each section of the composition, the same vowel-sound, e . • . ,, 
is always clearly to be perceived. This practice, however, is 
by no means common. 

Not all the questions relating to the text of the upper parts 
are strictly relevant to our subject*, yet it may be said that 
probably we ought not to suppose that the motett sprang at 
once into complete existence in the form described in the 
treatises, — as a composition that is to say in which all the parts 
have different words. Following the most direct analogy, and 
remembering the evidence which exists in all the music of the 
early period that we have seen of a strong love of vocalizing 
discant, we might even indeed almost suppose that the words 
in the motett were at first only to be found in the tenor ('for 
the tenor,' says the author of Ar» Cantua Menaurabilis, ' is to 
be considered as a text ^), and that the remaining part or parts 
were sung, like those of oryanum and conducttts, merely upon 
some vowel. Later probably, in that case, a text was carefully 
composed to suit first the suggestive metrical figures of the 
discant, and afterwards those of the triplum. Later still the 
whole method of providing upper parts was enlarged, and the 
composers of motetts, in their advance to welcome every 
exercise of musical ingenuity, often renounced the composition 
of original discant, as if it were child's play, and engaged them- 
selves in the far more difficult task of adapting the notes of 
already existing songs as discant to the figures of the tenor; 
and with the notes of these songs they took the words also. 

The oldest examples of the motett which we possess are 
apparently those contained in the Florence MS. They are of 
great interest for two reasons. In the first place they would 
seem to illustrate a period in the history of this form in which 
the fully composed motett has received words in the discant 
voice^ while the triplum still vocalizes ; and thus they may be 

^ Koch interestiiig inf onnaiion vespectiiig the wordf of motetts and of ooniuetf 
will be found in the work by Prof eeaor Meyer, Ikr Unprung dea Moldti, already 
mentioned in the preface to the present work. 

A a 2 



' , . _ '■■•.*■ — - 

■ ■ ' " i >5 ■ -F 

;■• '^^■' -■■ -• »'^:. *^ •,„'." f •■i«l""~:i: 

V ^^, ft. ii . . , , —- f 









'. »'. 



. 0' -'? fup^^iTcr .-ni^'nu lirfcTitc . 




• (? - ?■■•'■«? • « ■ 



ftUtiCquj 



I* >t?'^«»i»^ ^ 'if« ''•. .._:--. ^^^ 



tibcnt^ 



'*^-^-.., — 



I .^^\- -^ , .,f'- ^: •■1' >/.,:.-^^^^ 

■■ - • 7 . . . *- ; :_. -" !--. - __„— 

^ •• r -« ^ , ...•■.-.. 



iV 

■••"^i 



J T* 



« 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



357 



supposed to lend support to the hypothesis just suggested 
above. In the second place they aSord a striking example 
of the ambiguous system of notation. We have already pointed 
out that the Rota ^ Sumer is icumen in ^ was probably first 
written almost entirely in signs of one kind^ and consequently 
without special value^ and that a mode of rhythm supplied the 
key to the ^longitude and brevity' of the notes to be sung. 
The same system is to be seen in these motetts^ which are 
written entirely in longs^ except where two soimds are to be 
given upon one syllable, when the notes are shown in ligature. 
At first the reader is somewhat bewildered, but assuming that 
in the upper parts the first mode of rhythm is generally 
intended as the basis of constructioni the compositions may 
be translated with little difficulty. 

MOTETUS. 



HOSTBM SUPERAT. 



Bibl. Medioeo-LaurenziAiuij 
MS. Plat. 39. 1, foL cccci^. 




t 



zz 



■iS- 



t 



■«- 



^^ 



lo: 




Ho- Item la - pe - rat. 



et in - f er - nam re - ae - rat. 



e 



Z2 



33: 



io: 



3 



i 



nrur'n.fn ^ 



t 



73u 



gj r 



et ho-mi-nem li - be - rat 



per - dt-tam; 



col - pe sol - vit de • bi 



o gJ 



1 



3 



zz 



-JOL 



ZZ 



3 



^^ 



SL 



zc 



-&- 



o * 



tom 



g 



■JOL 



-eh 



iq: 



de- i il - U - 



OB, qai pro - pi - d 



- OS 



S^^S: 



zz 



■oe -le • 



^^ 



358 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 





io: 



-&- 



^^ 



ISi 



mm da - ta to - ni 



■n - a gra - ti 




■^ 



^ 



-© — &■ 



lo: 



zi: 



ra g' -^ rj 



fl*"^ flTf^rJ- l f-'^rJU rJ 



red-dit li - be -ram; sic et vi - ti - a 



pur-gaos o - pe • 



^^ 



zz: 



S 



zz 



a 



zz 



-^ 



zc 



iSE 





r3 « 


-» (S- 


„-^^ 


— ^ 


}- 


H 




f— 


1— 


1 ® — 


rj C 


■rj rJ 


— m- 


-Jl 


rnm 


DOS ad Bu - pe - ram 


da - cat gaa - di 


' a. 




^ 


f^=#j 


■ 


-O — eJ- 


h=-H 


— N- 


Ml 



MOTBTUS* 



QUI 8EBVABE PUBEREM. 



BibL Mediceo-Latoren^ana^ 
HS. Plat. 39. I, foL ooclxzxi^ 




£ 



^m 



iri'V* f^ i " ^^ 



^ 



i 



#^ 




n" r 



zz 



^^ 



■^-r 






trtf 



ZZ 



Qoi ler-va - re pa-be- rem 



va - gam dan-de - re 




a ' 



32: 



" * 



32: 



zz 



He 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



359 




:a: 



f^ j f J | f* I Pr» 



^ 



-©- 



B 



» 



zz 



Q P 



1S^ 



rj (O 



.O. 



^^ 



zz 



221 



^fe^ 



V r«»« III 



%/ %J 



itn-det 



la - vat la - te - 



rem; lit - tus co - le 



zz: 



zz 



^ . 



3a: 



IQC 



zz: 



ZE 



■^ 



3a: 



^ 



zz 



zz 



f^l" f°l 



Ty f I" r |^ 



zarr 



^^^ 



re 



tunc la 



bo - rat cam ez - plo - rat 



Ti - 



as VI - pe- 



ls: 



ZZ 



zz 



ZZ 



n. 



.Q. 



zz 



&E 



^^ 



3=: 



A 



:?a 



^ 



zz 



i 



zz 



:a: 



-^9- 



7^ 



;M fi J 



re . 



no - vit e 



mm car - ce - rem 



Tin - da 



ZZ 



3a: 



zz 



rzza: 



zz 






I^ 



'^ nrrr i ff 



ZC 



^ 



>^. , o 



p-| ^ P I ^'^ (O 



^?a 



± 



zz 



zz 



i 



■ol - ve 



- re 



• • t 



f e - duB et ca - rac - te 



rem ilr - ma - tarn 



a ' 



^►-^ 



zz 



3a: 



3a: 



3<So 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 




^ Jr J'J 



JOL 



ZC 



r\" r^^'^^' 




-^ 



■^ 



m 



jOl 



lEC 



ZZ 



ZC 



e 



i 



-g<B-ro« • f Oft - tft 



■em-per fal 



- le - le. 



33: 



zz 



22: 



32: 



" r\r 



x^ 



r^\^ f ^ I r P f ^ 



«: 



I 



xz. 



-f^ o r^ l ^ [^ =^^§ 



1 



zz 



« 



zc 



-dot 



ZZ 



^ 



no - vo gaa 






• to - rem a - 



ZZ 



mi. cum 



le - re. 



-&- 



« 



zc 



zz: 



MOTBTUS* 



IN BETHLBEM. 



BibL Mediceo-Lanremnana, 
MS. Pint. 39. z, fol. oodzxziL 

9 



M 



r^nr ^ If 



jQ. 



? 



SL 



ZC 




i 



i 



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the dliMonance is in the tr^ptunu 



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DEO CONFITEMINI. 

Bibl. Medioeo-Lanrenziaim, 
MS. Plat. 2g, I, foL ccclxuiii. 
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MOTETUS. 

LAUDES REFERAT 

Bibl. Medioeo-LBoxenzianA; 
MS. Plut. 39. I, foL ccdzzziii^ 




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Bibl. Hedioeo-Lattrenziana, 
MS. Plat 39. 1 foL ccdxzxv. 



MOTETUS. 



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368 



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370 



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These motetts belong apparently to the early historical period 
which saw the transition from equivocal to measured notation, 
a period which may perhaps be said to have been closed by the 
treatise !Z)wcan/t<« Positio Vulgaris, and in passing from them 
we note, as their chiefly remarkable characteristics, the strictness 
with which the system of ordines is maintained in the tenor, 
and the freedom and apparent spontaneity of the melodies 
composed upon the rigid formulae of the ecclesiastical theme. 
In the examples belonging presumably to the later period 
which begins with Discantus Positio Vulgaris and is closed by 
the works of the Franconian period, we may already from the 
beginning perceive certain changes in these respects, changes 
at first seen only as indicating a tendency towards revision of 
the method, but aftenvards even affecting the actual structure 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 371 

of the composition. Structural change was not to be observed^ 
so far as we were able to see^ in any shape in the more hieratic 
kinds of music^ in organum purum that is to say and in ctm- 
ductus f and its appearance in the motett may be taken probably 
to denote an especially strong and progressive vitality in this 
form of composition. 

The first change to be observed relates to the old method of 
establishing relation between the tenor and the upper parts^ 
by means^ that is to say^ of the coincidence of pauses^ and con- 
sists in the liberation of the upper part from the common 
obligation; the discantus now therefore still pauses with the 
tenor^ while the triplum wanders at will. This method is seen 
in our example Gaude chorui ommium here following^ in which 
also is to be observed a very early instance of a French iriplum, 
probably adapted from a current song. 

The next innovation consists in the liberation of the discantus 
and the consequent abolition of all coincidence of pauses^ except 
such as may occur by accident. Tet the notion of a formal 
relation between the tenor and the upper parts was not yet 
given up ; it now appears in the form of a coincidence between 
certain phrases in the upper parts and certain figures in the 
tenor. The tenor, it will be remembered^ consists of an 
'original' set out in modal figures and repeated as often as 
may be necessary. Any figure of the tenor may be selected 
as the subject of this kind of coincidence, which is then created 
by the singer of the discantus, who, at each repetition of the 
tenor original, accompanies the selected figure by the phrase 
of discant which was first composed for it, the remaining 
figures receiving fresh discant. The coincidence, like the 
repetition of the tenor original, may take place either directly 
or indirectly ; in the latter case the original phrase of discant 
appears in its repetitions in a different part of the scale from 
that which it occupied at first. This device, in which the 
triplum sometimes participates, is shown in our examples Virgo 
decus and Veni sancte spiritus, and in the latter imitations and 



372 METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 

interchange of phrase between the two upper parts are also 
seen. 

As we approach the Franconian period important signs of 
change become manifest. The most significant of these 
probably is the evident desire for greater freedom in the tenor. 
The short modal ordines begin to disappear^ the subject is dis- 
posed in long phrases unbroken by rests^ and is sometimes 
introduced and followed by notes not in the original, while 
during the Franconian period itself the root of plainsong was 
often abandoned^ and a passage, with its words complete, from 
some French song, served as the groundwork of the motett. 

In our illustrations of this period, the example AUe psaUite 
cum luya probably marks — ^if it be really a motett — the highest 
point attained at this time in purely formal writing in this 
kind of music. The principle of interchange which we have 
already often seen in casual operation in the older forms is 
here treated systematically, and now supplies the single motive 
for the complete composition; the general treatment also of 
the work, which begins in a simple manner and becomes more 
and more rich as it proceeds, displays an idea of musical effect 
apparently unknown to the older composers. The tenor^ it will 
be observed, is freely treated ; each of its three phrases being of 
different length, and each once repeated in order to receive the 
inverted discant of the upper parts. 

Our illustration A Paris affords an example of the employ- 
ment of a long passage, with words, from a French song, in 
place of the figured tenor, and in Li douz penser we see the 
whole of a song, with its words, brought into the lower parts. 
This destroys the principle of the tenor and creates a complete 
similarity between all three parts of the motett — except that 
probably in the lower part the subject is given intact, while in 
the upper parts the original melodies have no doubt suffered 
considerable alteration. 

The result of the method of adaptation of existing work, in 
preference to that of original composition, is seen in the bald 



DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



373 



and uninteresting character of the upper parts in the later 
motetts as compared with those in the work of older times. In 
the work of the earlier period we were at least able, in the 
absence of harmonic beauty, to find satisfaction in the simple 
and pleasing melody of the individual parts ; in the new method 
however, which excludes original composition and substitutes 
for it a process of constant expansion or compression of a given 
subject, the greater part of such beauty and character as the 
original song may have possessed is lost. It is difficult indeed, 
in examining the motetts of this latest period, to say in which 
of their characteristic features their musical merit can have 
been thought to consist, for the melodies are less agreeable and 
the harmony is no better than before ; and we are in fact only 
deterred from regarding such motetts as A Paris and Li douz 
peiMer as decadent by our conviction, again and again confirmed, 
that in a period of healthy and growing art, such as this with 
which we are at present engaged, no movement is retrograde 
and no effort sterile, but that all forms and phases of production, 
having their reason in the natural constitution of the art which 
they illustrate, are both necessary and beneficial. 

MOTETUS. 



OAUDB CHORUS OMNIUM. 

Qnotcd in 
Lib. of Medical Faculty, MontpeUier; IKseonfiM Potitio VfOgwns. 

MS. H. 196, fol. 71^ See Ommm. SeripL L 96. 




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Virgo Decus. 



Lib. of Medical Faculty, Montpellier; 
MS. H. 196, foL 96^ 



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Quoted in 
7>iacafi(iM BoflOiO Vulgaris. 
See Cbtmg. Scn>t i. 96. 



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377 




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METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 




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MOTBTUS, 
VENI SANCTA 8PIRITUS. 



Lib. of Medical Aumlty, HontpeUier ; 
MS. H. 196, foL 9a. 




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3a: 



2i 



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221 



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DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



379 




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38o 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 




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MOTBTUS. 
ALLS P8ALLITE. 



Lib. of Medical Faculty, Montpellier j 
MS. H. 196, foL 39a. 



Jr if Q > 1 r J . h-fi* iTj 1 Q f ^ 1 Q . 1 


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DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



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MOTETU8. 

A PARIS. 



Lib. of Medical Faculty, Montpellier; 
MS. H. 196, fol. 3^8. 



J rJ J_ l J J^? l J J rJ 



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T=i: 




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On pa - ro - le de batre et de van-ner, Kt de folr et 



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tin ta«av-on bon pain et bon cler .... 



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DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



383 




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tes g^oiiee compai - gnons 




sens son 



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oe mnere mnere i^an 



ce. 



Fr^ 



■e noa 



i=^ 



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X 



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zi 



pai-gnons U - ^ et joi - vom, chan-tani 

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tmf -fanf et a-mo - rous. 



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± 



ban 



door, Bians 



joi - aus da - mes d'on 



nor. 



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Mnere Fran - oe mnere muere Fran 



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33: 



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£t d'a - Toir qnant con a mea-tier ponr eo - la 



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si treuT 



zz: 



Fr^ 



TX. 



on bien 



ZZ 



•e nou 



en 



Tel 



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tre dens 



"« 

3 



e 



384 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 



JJJJ^^ I J 



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i 



i 



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i 



I 



T 



2±i 



M 



cier, be-les dames 2i de-vis; ettoat cetreav-on k Ba 



ru. 



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De men- re 




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feur por homes dd 



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teus. 



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Miiere Fran 



ce mnere muere Fran 



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M0TBTU8. 

LI DOUZ PEN8ER. 

Lib. of Medical Faculty, Montpellier; 
MS. H. 196, fol. 314. 

8- 




r f f' \r> rrr \ & rrrrU' ^s 



Qui a-monrs vent main - te - nir, £t ser - yir, loian-mentnuisfaas- 




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me jatm de cuer, Qnar tons jonrs I'ai ser - vie sans gni - ler. 



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i-e Qni tant fait 2i blas-mer, 

h- 



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et si ne doit 



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DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



385 







joi - e doa - hkr, St mon fin cner fm - baa • dtr et dum • 




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Ktles me • di 

8: 



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3a: 



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pmj 



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lo: 



1 



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H^I 



moil • Mt tee 

• Thai in the KS. 

C C 




386 



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\rr~fr\r r riTf'^Trrm 



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9 



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mteMncner oe - ter. 



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DISCANT OR MEASURED MUSIC 



387 




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TSL 



TBTi 



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me per - e - numni 



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O - - V. 

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mer-d Que m*el-tf - 



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3a: 



22 



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Tonte dou-lonr ee-tooet on - bli • er. 



etpoordb-por - ter. 



r r rJ| J J rJ H rJ J 



rTTin 



3a: 



SOD, U me oon- Tient mo • rir nne fe • tofir. 



Qoarpoorgxie - 



«1 li dooB INezIanefe - fsi d'a-mon 



1 



zz 



je. 



IMezl li dooB INezIqaexe - fsi d'a-moor * e - tee. 




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t/6 ne per tor^ment eoiif-friry ne m'en-qnSerde per-tir a nnl 



r r r\>f c ^°J rj j 



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Qnerje pe pole en U mer-d tro • Ter; 



Or da die - 



388 



METHOD OF MUSICAL ART 




tnlodxeet da nifltreen pri - aoo 



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i 



3 



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ni qui qa'ea poiit ne 



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non. 



BND OF VOIn 1. 



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